"Das U-Boot" Source Tree

@Tom Rini Tom Rini authored on 27 Sep 2021
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net global: Convert simple_strtoul() with decimal to dectoul() 2 years ago
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# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
# (C) Copyright 2000 - 2013
# Wolfgang Denk, DENX Software Engineering, wd@denx.de.


This directory contains the source code for U-Boot, a boot loader for
Embedded boards based on PowerPC, ARM, MIPS and several other
processors, which can be installed in a boot ROM and used to
initialize and test the hardware or to download and run application

The development of U-Boot is closely related to Linux: some parts of
the source code originate in the Linux source tree, we have some
header files in common, and special provision has been made to
support booting of Linux images.

Some attention has been paid to make this software easily
configurable and extendable. For instance, all monitor commands are
implemented with the same call interface, so that it's very easy to
add new commands. Also, instead of permanently adding rarely used
code (for instance hardware test utilities) to the monitor, you can
load and run it dynamically.


In general, all boards for which a configuration option exists in the
Makefile have been tested to some extent and can be considered
"working". In fact, many of them are used in production systems.

In case of problems see the CHANGELOG file to find out who contributed
the specific port. In addition, there are various MAINTAINERS files
scattered throughout the U-Boot source identifying the people or
companies responsible for various boards and subsystems.

Note: As of August, 2010, there is no longer a CHANGELOG file in the
actual U-Boot source tree; however, it can be created dynamically
from the Git log using:


Where to get help:

In case you have questions about, problems with or contributions for
U-Boot, you should send a message to the U-Boot mailing list at
<u-boot@lists.denx.de>. There is also an archive of previous traffic
on the mailing list - please search the archive before asking FAQ's.
Please see https://lists.denx.de/pipermail/u-boot and

Where to get source code:

The U-Boot source code is maintained in the Git repository at
https://source.denx.de/u-boot/u-boot.git ; you can browse it online at

The "Tags" links on this page allow you to download tarballs of
any version you might be interested in. Official releases are also
available from the DENX file server through HTTPS or FTP.

Where we come from:

- start from 8xxrom sources
- create PPCBoot project (https://sourceforge.net/projects/ppcboot)
- clean up code
- make it easier to add custom boards
- make it possible to add other [PowerPC] CPUs
- extend functions, especially:
  * Provide extended interface to Linux boot loader
  * S-Record download
  * network boot
  * ATA disk / SCSI ... boot
- create ARMBoot project (https://sourceforge.net/projects/armboot)
- add other CPU families (starting with ARM)
- create U-Boot project (https://sourceforge.net/projects/u-boot)
- current project page: see https://www.denx.de/wiki/U-Boot

Names and Spelling:

The "official" name of this project is "Das U-Boot". The spelling
"U-Boot" shall be used in all written text (documentation, comments
in source files etc.). Example:

	This is the README file for the U-Boot project.

File names etc. shall be based on the string "u-boot". Examples:


	#include <asm/u-boot.h>

Variable names, preprocessor constants etc. shall be either based on
the string "u_boot" or on "U_BOOT". Example:

	U_BOOT_VERSION		u_boot_logo
	IH_OS_U_BOOT		u_boot_hush_start


Starting with the release in October 2008, the names of the releases
were changed from numerical release numbers without deeper meaning
into a time stamp based numbering. Regular releases are identified by
names consisting of the calendar year and month of the release date.
Additional fields (if present) indicate release candidates or bug fix
releases in "stable" maintenance trees.

	U-Boot v2009.11	    - Release November 2009
	U-Boot v2009.11.1   - Release 1 in version November 2009 stable tree
	U-Boot v2010.09-rc1 - Release candidate 1 for September 2010 release

Directory Hierarchy:

/arch			Architecture-specific files
  /arc			Files generic to ARC architecture
  /arm			Files generic to ARM architecture
  /m68k			Files generic to m68k architecture
  /microblaze		Files generic to microblaze architecture
  /mips			Files generic to MIPS architecture
  /nds32		Files generic to NDS32 architecture
  /nios2		Files generic to Altera NIOS2 architecture
  /powerpc		Files generic to PowerPC architecture
  /riscv		Files generic to RISC-V architecture
  /sandbox		Files generic to HW-independent "sandbox"
  /sh			Files generic to SH architecture
  /x86			Files generic to x86 architecture
  /xtensa		Files generic to Xtensa architecture
/api			Machine/arch-independent API for external apps
/board			Board-dependent files
/cmd			U-Boot commands functions
/common			Misc architecture-independent functions
/configs		Board default configuration files
/disk			Code for disk drive partition handling
/doc			Documentation (a mix of ReST and READMEs)
/drivers		Device drivers
/dts			Makefile for building internal U-Boot fdt.
/env			Environment support
/examples		Example code for standalone applications, etc.
/fs			Filesystem code (cramfs, ext2, jffs2, etc.)
/include		Header Files
/lib			Library routines generic to all architectures
/Licenses		Various license files
/net			Networking code
/post			Power On Self Test
/scripts		Various build scripts and Makefiles
/test			Various unit test files
/tools			Tools to build and sign FIT images, etc.

Software Configuration:

Configuration is usually done using C preprocessor defines; the
rationale behind that is to avoid dead code whenever possible.

There are two classes of configuration variables:

* Configuration _OPTIONS_:
  These are selectable by the user and have names beginning with

* Configuration _SETTINGS_:
  These depend on the hardware etc. and should not be meddled with if
  you don't know what you're doing; they have names beginning with

Previously, all configuration was done by hand, which involved creating
symbolic links and editing configuration files manually. More recently,
U-Boot has added the Kbuild infrastructure used by the Linux kernel,
allowing you to use the "make menuconfig" command to configure your

Selection of Processor Architecture and Board Type:

For all supported boards there are ready-to-use default
configurations available; just type "make <board_name>_defconfig".

Example: For a TQM823L module type:

	cd u-boot
	make TQM823L_defconfig

Note: If you're looking for the default configuration file for a board
you're sure used to be there but is now missing, check the file
doc/README.scrapyard for a list of no longer supported boards.

Sandbox Environment:

U-Boot can be built natively to run on a Linux host using the 'sandbox'
board. This allows feature development which is not board- or architecture-
specific to be undertaken on a native platform. The sandbox is also used to
run some of U-Boot's tests.

See doc/arch/sandbox.rst for more details.

Board Initialisation Flow:

This is the intended start-up flow for boards. This should apply for both
SPL and U-Boot proper (i.e. they both follow the same rules).

Note: "SPL" stands for "Secondary Program Loader," which is explained in
more detail later in this file.

At present, SPL mostly uses a separate code path, but the function names
and roles of each function are the same. Some boards or architectures
may not conform to this.  At least most ARM boards which use
CONFIG_SPL_FRAMEWORK conform to this.

Execution typically starts with an architecture-specific (and possibly
CPU-specific) start.S file, such as:

	- arch/arm/cpu/armv7/start.S
	- arch/powerpc/cpu/mpc83xx/start.S
	- arch/mips/cpu/start.S

and so on. From there, three functions are called; the purpose and
limitations of each of these functions are described below.

	- purpose: essential init to permit execution to reach board_init_f()
	- no global_data or BSS
	- there is no stack (ARMv7 may have one but it will soon be removed)
	- must not set up SDRAM or use console
	- must only do the bare minimum to allow execution to continue to
	- this is almost never needed
	- return normally from this function

	- purpose: set up the machine ready for running board_init_r():
		i.e. SDRAM and serial UART
	- global_data is available
	- stack is in SRAM
	- BSS is not available, so you cannot use global/static variables,
		only stack variables and global_data

	Non-SPL-specific notes:
	- dram_init() is called to set up DRAM. If already done in SPL this
		can do nothing

	SPL-specific notes:
	- you can override the entire board_init_f() function with your own
		version as needed.
	- preloader_console_init() can be called here in extremis
	- should set up SDRAM, and anything needed to make the UART work
	- there is no need to clear BSS, it will be done by crt0.S
	- for specific scenarios on certain architectures an early BSS *can*
	  be made available (via CONFIG_SPL_EARLY_BSS by moving the clearing
	  of BSS prior to entering board_init_f()) but doing so is discouraged.
	  Instead it is strongly recommended to architect any code changes
	  or additions such to not depend on the availability of BSS during
	  board_init_f() as indicated in other sections of this README to
	  maintain compatibility and consistency across the entire code base.
	- must return normally from this function (don't call board_init_r()

Here the BSS is cleared. For SPL, if CONFIG_SPL_STACK_R is defined, then at
this point the stack and global_data are relocated to below
CONFIG_SPL_STACK_R_ADDR. For non-SPL, U-Boot is relocated to run at the top of

	- purpose: main execution, common code
	- global_data is available
	- SDRAM is available
	- BSS is available, all static/global variables can be used
	- execution eventually continues to main_loop()

	Non-SPL-specific notes:
	- U-Boot is relocated to the top of memory and is now running from

	SPL-specific notes:
	- stack is optionally in SDRAM, if CONFIG_SPL_STACK_R is defined and
	- preloader_console_init() can be called here - typically this is
		done by selecting CONFIG_SPL_BOARD_INIT and then supplying a
		spl_board_init() function containing this call
	- loads U-Boot or (in falcon mode) Linux

Configuration Options:

Configuration depends on the combination of board and CPU type; all
such information is kept in a configuration file

Example: For a TQM823L module, all configuration settings are in

Many of the options are named exactly as the corresponding Linux
kernel configuration options. The intention is to make it easier to
build a config tool - later.

- ARM Platform Bus Type(CCI):
		CoreLink Cache Coherent Interconnect (CCI) is ARM BUS which
		provides full cache coherency between two clusters of multi-core
		CPUs and I/O coherency for devices and I/O masters


		Defined For SoC that has cache coherent interconnect


		Defined for SoC that has cache coherent interconnect CCN-504

The following options need to be configured:

- CPU Type:	Define exactly one, e.g. CONFIG_MPC85XX.

- Board Type:	Define exactly one, e.g. CONFIG_MPC8540ADS.

- 85xx CPU Options:

		Specifies that the core is a 64-bit PowerPC implementation (implements
		the "64" category of the Power ISA). This is necessary for ePAPR
		compliance, among other possible reasons.


		Defines the core time base clock divider ratio compared to the
		system clock.  On most PQ3 devices this is 8, on newer QorIQ
		devices it can be 16 or 32.  The ratio varies from SoC to Soc.


		Defines the string to utilize when trying to match PCIe device
		tree nodes for the given platform.


		Enables a workaround for erratum A004510.  If set,

		CONFIG_SYS_FSL_ERRATUM_A004510_SVR_REV2 (optional)

		Defines one or two SoC revisions (low 8 bits of SVR)
		for which the A004510 workaround should be applied.

		The rest of SVR is either not relevant to the decision
		of whether the erratum is present (e.g. p2040 versus
		p2041) or is implied by the build target, which controls
		whether CONFIG_SYS_FSL_ERRATUM_A004510 is set.

		See Freescale App Note 4493 for more information about
		this erratum.

		Enables a workaround for IFC erratum A003399. It is only
		required during NOR boot.

		Enables a workaround for T1040/T1042 erratum A008044. It is only
		required during NAND boot and valid for Rev 1.0 SoC revision


		This is the value to write into CCSR offset 0x18600
		according to the A004510 workaround.

		This value denotes start offset of DDR memory which is
		connected exclusively to the DSP cores.

		This value denotes start offset of M2 memory
		which is directly connected to the DSP core.

		This value denotes start offset of M3 memory which is directly
		connected to the DSP core.

		This value denotes start offset of DSP CCSR space.

		Single Source Clock is clocking mode present in some of FSL SoC's.
		In this mode, a single differential clock is used to supply
		clocks to the sysclock, ddrclock and usbclock.

		This CONFIG is defined when the CPC is configured as SRAM at the
		time of U-Boot entry and is required to be re-initialized.

		Indicates this SoC supports deep sleep feature. If deep sleep is
		supported, core will start to execute uboot when wakes up.

- Generic CPU options:

		Defines the endianess of the CPU. Implementation of those
		values is arch specific.

		Freescale DDR driver in use. This type of DDR controller is
		found in mpc83xx, mpc85xx as well as some ARM core SoCs.

		Freescale DDR memory-mapped register base.

		Specify emulator support for DDR. Some DDR features such as
		deskew training are not available.

		Freescale DDR1 controller.

		Freescale DDR2 controller.

		Freescale DDR3 controller.

		Freescale DDR4 controller.

		Freescale DDR3 controller for ARM-based SoCs.

		Board config to use DDR1. It can be enabled for SoCs with
		Freescale DDR1 or DDR2 controllers, depending on the board

		Board config to use DDR2. It can be enabled for SoCs with
		Freescale DDR2 or DDR3 controllers, depending on the board

		Board config to use DDR3. It can be enabled for SoCs with
		Freescale DDR3 or DDR3L controllers.

		Board config to use DDR3L. It can be enabled for SoCs with
		DDR3L controllers.

		Board config to use DDR4. It can be enabled for SoCs with
		DDR4 controllers.

		Defines the IFC controller register space as Big Endian

		Defines the IFC controller register space as Little Endian

		Defines divider of platform clock(clock input to IFC controller).

		Defines divider of platform clock(clock input to eLBC controller).

		It enables addition of RCW (Power on reset configuration) in built image.
		Please refer doc/README.pblimage for more details

		It adds PBI(pre-boot instructions) commands in u-boot build image.
		PBI commands can be used to configure SoC before it starts the execution.
		Please refer doc/README.pblimage for more details

		Defines the DDR controller register space as Big Endian

		Defines the DDR controller register space as Little Endian

		Physical address from the view of DDR controllers. It is the
		same as CONFIG_SYS_DDR_SDRAM_BASE for  all Power SoCs. But
		it could be different for ARM SoCs.

		DDR controller interleaving on 256-byte. This is a special
		interleaving mode, handled by Dickens for Freescale layerscape
		SoCs with ARM core.

		Number of controllers used as main memory.

		Number of controllers used for other than main memory.

		Defines the SoC has DP-DDR used for DPAA.

		Defines the SEC controller register space as Big Endian

		Defines the SEC controller register space as Little Endian

- MIPS CPU options:

		Offset relative to CONFIG_SYS_SDRAM_BASE for initial stack
		pointer. This is needed for the temporary stack before


		Enable compilation of tools/xway-swap-bytes needed for Lantiq
		XWAY SoCs for booting from NOR flash. The U-Boot image needs to
		be swapped if a flash programmer is used.

- ARM options:

		Select high exception vectors of the ARM core, e.g., do not
		clear the V bit of the c1 register of CP15.

		Generic timer clock source frequency.

		Generic timer clock source frequency if the real clock is
		different from COUNTER_FREQUENCY, and can only be determined
		at run time.

- Tegra SoC options:

		Support executing U-Boot in non-secure (NS) mode. Certain
		impossible actions will be skipped if the CPU is in NS mode,
		such as ARM architectural timer initialization.

- Linux Kernel Interface:
		CONFIG_MEMSIZE_IN_BYTES		[relevant for MIPS only]

		When transferring memsize parameter to Linux, some versions
		expect it to be in bytes, others in MB.
		Define CONFIG_MEMSIZE_IN_BYTES to make it in bytes.


		New kernel versions are expecting firmware settings to be
		passed using flattened device trees (based on open firmware

		 * New libfdt-based support
		 * Adds the "fdt" command
		 * The bootm command automatically updates the fdt

		OF_TBCLK - The timebase frequency.

		boards with QUICC Engines require OF_QE to set UCC MAC


		Board code has addition modification that it wants to make
		to the flat device tree before handing it off to the kernel


		Other code has addition modification that it wants to make
		to the flat device tree before handing it off to the kernel.
		This causes ft_system_setup() to be called before booting
		the kernel.


		U-Boot can detect if an IDE device is present or not.
		If not, and this new config option is activated, U-Boot
		removes the ATA node from the DTS before booting Linux,
		so the Linux IDE driver does not probe the device and
		crash. This is needed for buggy hardware (uc101) where
		no pull down resistor is connected to the signal IDE5V_DD7.

		CONFIG_MACH_TYPE	[relevant for ARM only][mandatory]

		This setting is mandatory for all boards that have only one
		machine type and must be used to specify the machine type
		number as it appears in the ARM machine registry
		(see https://www.arm.linux.org.uk/developer/machines/).
		Only boards that have multiple machine types supported
		in a single configuration file and the machine type is
		runtime discoverable, do not have to use this setting.

- vxWorks boot parameters:

		bootvx constructs a valid bootline using the following
		environments variables: bootdev, bootfile, ipaddr, netmask,
		serverip, gatewayip, hostname, othbootargs.
		It loads the vxWorks image pointed bootfile.

		Note: If a "bootargs" environment is defined, it will override
		the defaults discussed just above.

- Cache Configuration:
		CONFIG_SYS_L2CACHE_OFF- Do not enable L2 cache in U-Boot

- Cache Configuration for ARM:
		CONFIG_SYS_L2_PL310 - Enable support for ARM PL310 L2 cache
		CONFIG_SYS_PL310_BASE - Physical base address of PL310
					controller register space

- Serial Ports:

		Define this if you want support for Amba PrimeCell PL011 UARTs.


		If you have Amba PrimeCell PL011 UARTs, set this variable to
		the clock speed of the UARTs.


		If you have Amba PrimeCell PL010 or PL011 UARTs on your board,
		define this to a list of base addresses for each (supported)
		port. See e.g. include/configs/versatile.h


		Define this variable to enable hw flow control in serial driver.
		Current user of this option is drivers/serial/nsl16550.c driver

- Autoboot Command:
		Only needed when CONFIG_BOOTDELAY is enabled;
		define a command string that is automatically executed
		when no character is read on the console interface
		within "Boot Delay" after reset.

		The value of these goes into the environment as
		"ramboot" and "nfsboot" respectively, and can be used
		as a convenience, when switching between booting from
		RAM and NFS.

- Serial Download Echo Mode:
		If defined to 1, all characters received during a
		serial download (using the "loads" command) are
		echoed back. This might be needed by some terminal
		emulations (like "cu"), but may as well just take
		time on others. This setting #define's the initial
		value of the "loads_echo" environment variable.

- Kgdb Serial Baudrate: (if CONFIG_CMD_KGDB is defined)
		Select one of the baudrates listed in

- Removal of commands
		If no commands are needed to boot, you can disable
		CONFIG_CMDLINE to remove them. In this case, the command line
		will not be available, and when U-Boot wants to execute the
		boot command (on start-up) it will call board_run_command()
		instead. This can reduce image size significantly for very
		simple boot procedures.

- Regular expression support:
		If this variable is defined, U-Boot is linked against
		the SLRE (Super Light Regular Expression) library,
		which adds regex support to some commands, as for
		example "env grep" and "setexpr".

- Device tree:
		If this variable is defined, U-Boot will use a device tree
		to configure its devices, instead of relying on statically
		compiled #defines in the board file. This option is
		experimental and only available on a few boards. The device
		tree is available in the global data as gd->fdt_blob.

		U-Boot needs to get its device tree from somewhere. This can
		be done using one of the three options below:

		If this variable is defined, U-Boot will embed a device tree
		binary in its image. This device tree file should be in the
		board directory and called <soc>-<board>.dts. The binary file
		is then picked up in board_init_f() and made available through
		the global data structure as gd->fdt_blob.

		If this variable is defined, U-Boot will build a device tree
		binary. It will be called u-boot.dtb. Architecture-specific
		code will locate it at run-time. Generally this works by:

			cat u-boot.bin u-boot.dtb >image.bin

		and in fact, U-Boot does this for you, creating a file called
		u-boot-dtb.bin which is useful in the common case. You can
		still use the individual files if you need something more

		If this variable is defined, U-Boot will use the device tree
		provided by the board at runtime instead of embedding one with
		the image. Only boards defining board_fdt_blob_setup() support
		this option (see include/fdtdec.h file).

- Watchdog:
		If this variable is defined, it enables watchdog
		support for the SoC. There must be support in the SoC
		specific code for a watchdog. For the 8xx
		CPUs, the SIU Watchdog feature is enabled in the SYPCR
		register.  When supported for a specific SoC is
		available, then no further board specific code should
		be needed to use it.

		When using a watchdog circuitry external to the used
		SoC, then define this variable and provide board
		specific code for the "hw_watchdog_reset" function.

		Some platforms automatically call WATCHDOG_RESET()
		from the timer interrupt handler every
		CONFIG_SYS_WATCHDOG_FREQ interrupts. If not set by the
		board configuration file, a default of CONFIG_SYS_HZ/2
		(i.e. 500) is used. Setting CONFIG_SYS_WATCHDOG_FREQ
		to 0 disables calling WATCHDOG_RESET() from the timer

- Real-Time Clock:

		When CONFIG_CMD_DATE is selected, the type of the RTC
		has to be selected, too. Define exactly one of the
		following options:

		CONFIG_RTC_PCF8563	- use Philips PCF8563 RTC
		CONFIG_RTC_MC13XXX	- use MC13783 or MC13892 RTC
		CONFIG_RTC_MC146818	- use MC146818 RTC
		CONFIG_RTC_DS1307	- use Maxim, Inc. DS1307 RTC
		CONFIG_RTC_DS1337	- use Maxim, Inc. DS1337 RTC
		CONFIG_RTC_DS1338	- use Maxim, Inc. DS1338 RTC
		CONFIG_RTC_DS1339	- use Maxim, Inc. DS1339 RTC
		CONFIG_RTC_DS164x	- use Dallas DS164x RTC
		CONFIG_RTC_ISL1208	- use Intersil ISL1208 RTC
		CONFIG_RTC_MAX6900	- use Maxim, Inc. MAX6900 RTC
		CONFIG_RTC_DS1337_NOOSC	- Turn off the OSC output for DS1337
		CONFIG_SYS_RV3029_TCR	- enable trickle charger on
					  RV3029 RTC.

		Note that if the RTC uses I2C, then the I2C interface
		must also be configured. See I2C Support, below.

- GPIO Support:
		CONFIG_PCA953X		- use NXP's PCA953X series I2C GPIO

		The CONFIG_SYS_I2C_PCA953X_WIDTH option specifies a list of
		chip-ngpio pairs that tell the PCA953X driver the number of
		pins supported by a particular chip.

		Note that if the GPIO device uses I2C, then the I2C interface
		must also be configured. See I2C Support, below.

- I/O tracing:
		When CONFIG_IO_TRACE is selected, U-Boot intercepts all I/O
		accesses and can checksum them or write a list of them out
		to memory. See the 'iotrace' command for details. This is
		useful for testing device drivers since it can confirm that
		the driver behaves the same way before and after a code
		change. Currently this is supported on sandbox and arm. To
		add support for your architecture, add '#include <iotrace.h>'
		to the bottom of arch/<arch>/include/asm/io.h and test.

		Example output from the 'iotrace stats' command is below.
		Note that if the trace buffer is exhausted, the checksum will
		still continue to operate.

			iotrace is enabled
			Start:  10000000	(buffer start address)
			Size:   00010000	(buffer size)
			Offset: 00000120	(current buffer offset)
			Output: 10000120	(start + offset)
			Count:  00000018	(number of trace records)
			CRC32:  9526fb66	(CRC32 of all trace records)

- Timestamp Support:

		When CONFIG_TIMESTAMP is selected, the timestamp
		(date and time) of an image is printed by image
		commands like bootm or iminfo. This option is
		automatically enabled when you select CONFIG_CMD_DATE .

- Partition Labels (disklabels) Supported:
		Zero or more of the following:
		CONFIG_MAC_PARTITION   Apple's MacOS partition table.
		CONFIG_ISO_PARTITION   ISO partition table, used on CDROM etc.
		CONFIG_EFI_PARTITION   GPT partition table, common when EFI is the
				       bootloader.  Note 2TB partition limit; see
		CONFIG_SCSI) you must configure support for at
		least one non-MTD partition type as well.

- IDE Reset method:
		CONFIG_IDE_RESET_ROUTINE - this is defined in several
		board configurations files but used nowhere!

		CONFIG_IDE_RESET - is this is defined, IDE Reset will
		be performed by calling the function
			ide_set_reset(int reset)
		which has to be defined in a board specific file

- ATAPI Support:

		Set this to enable ATAPI support.

- LBA48 Support

		Set this to enable support for disks larger than 137GB
		Also look at CONFIG_SYS_64BIT_LBA.
		Whithout these , LBA48 support uses 32bit variables and will 'only'
		support disks up to 2.1TB.

			When enabled, makes the IDE subsystem use 64bit sector addresses.
			Default is 32bit.

- SCSI Support:
		CONFIG_SYS_SCSI_MAX_LUN] can be adjusted to define the
		maximum numbers of LUNs, SCSI ID's and target

		The environment variable 'scsidevs' is set to the number of
		SCSI devices found during the last scan.

- NETWORK Support (PCI):
		Support for Intel 8254x/8257x gigabit chips.

		Utility code for direct access to the SPI bus on Intel 8257x.
		This does not do anything useful unless you set at least one

		Allow generic access to the SPI bus on the Intel 8257x, for
		example with the "sspi" command.

		Support for National dp83815 chips.

		Support for National dp8382[01] gigabit chips.

- NETWORK Support (other):

		Support for AT91RM9200 EMAC.

			Define this to use reduced MII inteface

			If this defined, the driver is quiet.
			The driver doen't show link status messages.

		Support for the Calxeda XGMAC device

		Support for SMSC's LAN91C96 chips.

			Define this to enable 32 bit addressing

		Support for SMSC's LAN91C111 chip

			Define this to hold the physical address
			of the device (I/O space)

			Define this if data bus is 32 bits

			Define this to use i/o functions instead of macros
			(some hardware wont work with macros)

			Define this if you have more then 3 PHYs.

		Support for Faraday's FTGMAC100 Gigabit SoC Ethernet

			Define this to use GE link update with gigabit PHY.
			Define this if FTGMAC100 is connected to gigabit PHY.
			If your system has 10/100 PHY only, it might not occur
			wrong behavior. Because PHY usually return timeout or
			useless data when polling gigabit status and gigabit
			control registers. This behavior won't affect the
			correctnessof 10/100 link speed update.

		Support for Renesas on-chip Ethernet controller

			Define the number of ports to be used

			Define the ETH PHY's address

			If this option is set, the driver enables cache flush.

- TPM Support:
		Support TPM devices.

		Support for Infineon i2c bus TPM devices. Only one device
		per system is supported at this time.

			Define the burst count bytes upper limit

		Support for STMicroelectronics TPM devices. Requires DM_TPM support.

			Support for STMicroelectronics ST33ZP24 I2C devices.
			Requires TPM_ST33ZP24 and I2C.

			Support for STMicroelectronics ST33ZP24 SPI devices.
			Requires TPM_ST33ZP24 and SPI.

		Support for Atmel TWI TPM device. Requires I2C support.

		Support for generic parallel port TPM devices. Only one device
		per system is supported at this time.

			Base address where the generic TPM device is mapped
			to. Contemporary x86 systems usually map it at

		Define this to enable the TPM support library which provides
		functional interfaces to some TPM commands.
		Requires support for a TPM device.

		Define this to enable authorized functions in the TPM library.
		Requires CONFIG_TPM and CONFIG_SHA1.

- USB Support:
		At the moment only the UHCI host controller is
		supported (PIP405, MIP405); define
		CONFIG_USB_UHCI to enable it.
		define CONFIG_USB_KEYBOARD to enable the USB Keyboard
		and define CONFIG_USB_STORAGE to enable the USB
		storage devices.
		Supported are USB Keyboards and USB Floppy drives
		(TEAC FD-05PUB).

		CONFIG_USB_EHCI_TXFIFO_THRESH enables setting of the
		txfilltuning field in the EHCI controller on reset.

		CONFIG_USB_DWC2_REG_ADDR the physical CPU address of the DWC2
		HW module registers.

- USB Device:
		Define the below if you wish to use the USB console.
		Once firmware is rebuilt from a serial console issue the
		command "setenv stdin usbtty; setenv stdout usbtty" and
		attach your USB cable. The Unix command "dmesg" should print
		it has found a new device. The environment variable usbtty
		can be set to gserial or cdc_acm to enable your device to
		appear to a USB host as a Linux gserial device or a
		Common Device Class Abstract Control Model serial device.
		If you select usbtty = gserial you should be able to enumerate
		a Linux host by
		# modprobe usbserial vendor=0xVendorID product=0xProductID
		else if using cdc_acm, simply setting the environment
		variable usbtty to be cdc_acm should suffice. The following
		might be defined in YourBoardName.h

			Define this to build a UDC device

			Define this to have a tty type of device available to
			talk to the UDC device

			Define this to enable the high speed support for usb
			device and usbtty. If this feature is enabled, a routine
			int is_usbd_high_speed(void)
			also needs to be defined by the driver to dynamically poll
			whether the enumeration has succeded at high speed or full

			Define this if you want stdin, stdout &/or stderr to
			be set to usbtty.

		If you have a USB-IF assigned VendorID then you may wish to
		define your own vendor specific values either in BoardName.h
		or directly in usbd_vendor_info.h. If you don't define
		should pretend to be a Linux device to it's target host.

			Define this string as the name of your company for

			Define this string as the name of your product
			- CONFIG_USBD_PRODUCT_NAME "acme usb device"

			Define this as your assigned Vendor ID from the USB
			Implementors Forum. This *must* be a genuine Vendor ID
			to avoid polluting the USB namespace.

			Define this as the unique Product ID
			for your device

- ULPI Layer Support:
		The ULPI (UTMI Low Pin (count) Interface) PHYs are supported via
		the generic ULPI layer. The generic layer accesses the ULPI PHY
		via the platform viewport, so you need both the genric layer and
		the viewport enabled. Currently only Chipidea/ARC based
		viewport is supported.
		To enable the ULPI layer support, define CONFIG_USB_ULPI and
		CONFIG_USB_ULPI_VIEWPORT in your board configuration file.
		If your ULPI phy needs a different reference clock than the
		standard 24 MHz then you have to define CONFIG_ULPI_REF_CLK to
		the appropriate value in Hz.

- MMC Support:
		The MMC controller on the Intel PXA is supported. To
		enable this define CONFIG_MMC. The MMC can be
		accessed from the boot prompt by mapping the device
		to physical memory similar to flash. Command line is
		enabled with CONFIG_CMD_MMC. The MMC driver also works with
		the FAT fs. This is enabled with CONFIG_CMD_FAT.

		Support for Renesas on-chip MMCIF controller

			Define the base address of MMCIF registers

			Define the clock frequency for MMCIF

- USB Device Firmware Update (DFU) class support:
		This enables the USB portion of the DFU USB class

		This enables support for exposing NAND devices via DFU.

		This enables support for exposing RAM via DFU.
		Note: DFU spec refer to non-volatile memory usage, but
		allow usages beyond the scope of spec - here RAM usage,
		one that would help mostly the developer.

		Dfu transfer uses a buffer before writing data to the
		raw storage device. Make the size (in bytes) of this buffer
		configurable. The size of this buffer is also configurable
		through the "dfu_bufsiz" environment variable.

		When updating files rather than the raw storage device,
		we use a static buffer to copy the file into and then write
		the buffer once we've been given the whole file.  Define
		this to the maximum filesize (in bytes) for the buffer.
		Default is 4 MiB if undefined.

		Poll timeout [ms], is the timeout a device can send to the
		host. The host must wait for this timeout before sending
		a subsequent DFU_GET_STATUS request to the device.

		Poll timeout [ms], which the device sends to the host when
		entering dfuMANIFEST state. Host waits this timeout, before
		sending again an USB request to the device.

- Journaling Flash filesystem support:
		Define these for a default partition on a NAND device

		Define these for a default partition on a NOR device

- Keyboard Support:
		See Kconfig help for available keyboard drivers.


		Define this to enable a custom keyboard support.
		This simply calls drv_keyboard_init() which must be
		defined in your board-specific files. This option is deprecated
		and is only used by novena. For new boards, use driver model

- Video support:
		Enable the Freescale DIU video driver.	Reference boards for
		SOCs that have a DIU should define this macro to enable DIU
		support, and should also define these other macros:


		The DIU driver will look for the 'video-mode' environment
		variable, and if defined, enable the DIU as a console during
		boot.  See the documentation file doc/README.video for a
		description of this variable.


		Define this to enable LCD support (for output to LCD
		display); also select one of the supported displays
		by defining one of these:


			HITACHI TX09D70VM1CCA, 3.5", 240x320.


			NEC NL6448AC33-18. Active, color, single scan.


			NEC NL6448BC20-08. 6.5", 640x480.
			Active, color, single scan.


			NEC NL6448BC33-54. 10.4", 640x480.
			Active, color, single scan.


			Sharp 320x240. Active, color, single scan.
			It isn't 16x9, and I am not sure what it is.


			Sharp LQ64D341 display, 640x480.
			Active, color, single scan.


			HLD1045 display, 640x480.
			Active, color, single scan.


			Optrex	 CBL50840-2 NF-FW 99 22 M5
			Hitachi	 LMG6912RPFC-00T
			Hitachi	 SP14Q002

			320x240. Black & white.


		Normally the LCD is page-aligned (typically 4KB). If this is
		defined then the LCD will be aligned to this value instead.
		For ARM it is sometimes useful to use MMU_SECTION_SIZE
		here, since it is cheaper to change data cache settings on
		a per-section basis.


		Sometimes, for example if the display is mounted in portrait
		mode or even if it's mounted landscape but rotated by 180degree,
		we need to rotate our content of the display relative to the
		framebuffer, so that user can read the messages which are
		printed out.
		Once CONFIG_LCD_ROTATION is defined, the lcd_console will be
		initialized with a given rotation from "vl_rot" out of
		"vidinfo_t" which is provided by the board specific code.
		The value for vl_rot is coded as following (matching to
		fbcon=rotate:<n> linux-kernel commandline):
		0 = no rotation respectively 0 degree
		1 = 90 degree rotation
		2 = 180 degree rotation
		3 = 270 degree rotation

		If CONFIG_LCD_ROTATION is not defined, the console will be
		initialized with 0degree rotation.


		Support drawing of RLE8-compressed bitmaps on the LCD.


		Enables an 'i2c edid' command which can read EDID
		information over I2C from an attached LCD display.

- MII/PHY support:

		The clock frequency of the MII bus


		Some PHY like Intel LXT971A need extra delay after
		reset before any MII register access is possible.
		For such PHY, set this option to the usec delay
		required. (minimum 300usec for LXT971A)


		Some PHY like Intel LXT971A need extra delay after
		command issued before MII status register can be read

- IP address:

		Define a default value for the IP address to use for
		the default Ethernet interface, in case this is not
		determined through e.g. bootp.
		(Environment variable "ipaddr")

- Server IP address:

		Defines a default value for the IP address of a TFTP
		server to contact when using the "tftboot" command.
		(Environment variable "serverip")


		Keeps the server's MAC address, in the env 'serveraddr'
		for passing to bootargs (like Linux's netconsole option)

- Gateway IP address:

		Defines a default value for the IP address of the
		default router where packets to other networks are
		sent to.
		(Environment variable "gatewayip")

- Subnet mask:

		Defines a default value for the subnet mask (or
		routing prefix) which is used to determine if an IP
		address belongs to the local subnet or needs to be
		forwarded through a router.
		(Environment variable "netmask")

- BOOTP Recovery Mode:

		If you have many targets in a network that try to
		boot using BOOTP, you may want to avoid that all
		systems send out BOOTP requests at precisely the same
		moment (which would happen for instance at recovery
		from a power failure, when all systems will try to
		boot, thus flooding the BOOTP server. Defining
		CONFIG_BOOTP_RANDOM_DELAY causes a random delay to be
		inserted before sending out BOOTP requests. The
		following delays are inserted then:

		1st BOOTP request:	delay 0 ... 1 sec
		2nd BOOTP request:	delay 0 ... 2 sec
		3rd BOOTP request:	delay 0 ... 4 sec
		4th and following
		BOOTP requests:		delay 0 ... 8 sec


		BOOTP packets are uniquely identified using a 32-bit ID. The
		server will copy the ID from client requests to responses and
		U-Boot will use this to determine if it is the destination of
		an incoming response. Some servers will check that addresses
		aren't in use before handing them out (usually using an ARP
		ping) and therefore take up to a few hundred milliseconds to
		respond. Network congestion may also influence the time it
		takes for a response to make it back to the client. If that
		time is too long, U-Boot will retransmit requests. In order
		to allow earlier responses to still be accepted after these
		retransmissions, U-Boot's BOOTP client keeps a small cache of
		IDs. The CONFIG_BOOTP_ID_CACHE_SIZE controls the size of this
		cache. The default is to keep IDs for up to four outstanding
		requests. Increasing this will allow U-Boot to accept offers
		from a BOOTP client in networks with unusually high latency.

- DHCP Advanced Options:
		You can fine tune the DHCP functionality by defining
		CONFIG_BOOTP_* symbols:


		CONFIG_BOOTP_SERVERIP - TFTP server will be the serverip
		environment variable, not the BOOTP server.

		CONFIG_BOOTP_MAY_FAIL - If the DHCP server is not found
		after the configured retry count, the call will fail
		instead of starting over.  This can be used to fail over
		to Link-local IP address configuration if the DHCP server
		is not available.


		A 32bit value in microseconds for a delay between
		receiving a "DHCP Offer" and sending the "DHCP Request".
		This fixes a problem with certain DHCP servers that don't
		respond 100% of the time to a "DHCP request". E.g. On an
		AT91RM9200 processor running at 180MHz, this delay needed
		to be *at least* 15,000 usec before a Windows Server 2003
		DHCP server would reply 100% of the time. I recommend at
		least 50,000 usec to be safe. The alternative is to hope
		that one of the retries will be successful but note that
		the DHCP timeout and retry process takes a longer than
		this delay.

 - Link-local IP address negotiation:
		Negotiate with other link-local clients on the local network
		for an address that doesn't require explicit configuration.
		This is especially useful if a DHCP server cannot be guaranteed
		to exist in all environments that the device must operate.

		See doc/README.link-local for more information.

 - MAC address from environment variables


		Fix-up device tree with MAC addresses fetched sequentially from
		environment variables. This config work on assumption that
		non-usable ethernet node of device-tree are either not present
		or their status has been marked as "disabled".

 - CDP Options:

		The device id used in CDP trigger frames.


		A two character string which is prefixed to the MAC address
		of the device.


		A printf format string which contains the ascii name of
		the port. Normally is set to "eth%d" which sets
		eth0 for the first Ethernet, eth1 for the second etc.


		A 32bit integer which indicates the device capabilities;
		0x00000010 for a normal host which does not forwards.


		An ascii string containing the version of the software.


		An ascii string containing the name of the platform.


		A 32bit integer sent on the trigger.


		A 16bit integer containing the power consumption of the
		device in .1 of milliwatts.


		A byte containing the id of the VLAN.


		Several configurations allow to display the current
		status using a LED. For instance, the LED will blink
		fast while running U-Boot code, stop blinking as
		soon as a reply to a BOOTP request was received, and
		start blinking slow once the Linux kernel is running
		(supported by a status LED driver in the Linux
		kernel). Defining CONFIG_LED_STATUS enables this
		feature in U-Boot.

		Additional options:

		The status LED can be connected to a GPIO pin.
		In such cases, the gpio_led driver can be used as a
		status LED backend implementation. Define CONFIG_LED_STATUS_GPIO
		to include the gpio_led driver in the U-Boot binary.

		Some GPIO connected LEDs may have inverted polarity in which
		case the GPIO high value corresponds to LED off state and
		GPIO low value corresponds to LED on state.
		In such cases CONFIG_GPIO_LED_INVERTED_TABLE may be defined
		with a list of GPIO LEDs that have inverted polarity.


		Note: This is deprecated in favour of driver model. Use
		CONFIG_DM_I2C instead.

		This enable the legacy i2c subsystem, and will allow you to use
		i2c commands at the u-boot command line (as long as you set
		    for defining speed and slave address
		  - activate second bus with I2C_SOFT_DECLARATIONS2 define
		    for defining speed and slave address
		  - activate third bus with I2C_SOFT_DECLARATIONS3 define
		    for defining speed and slave address
		  - activate fourth bus with I2C_SOFT_DECLARATIONS4 define
		    for defining speed and slave address

		- drivers/i2c/fsl_i2c.c:
		  - activate i2c driver with CONFIG_SYS_I2C_FSL
		    define CONFIG_SYS_FSL_I2C_OFFSET for setting the register
		    offset CONFIG_SYS_FSL_I2C_SPEED for the i2c speed and
		    CONFIG_SYS_FSL_I2C_SLAVE for the slave addr of the first
		  - If your board supports a second fsl i2c bus, define
		    CONFIG_SYS_FSL_I2C2_OFFSET for the register offset
		    CONFIG_SYS_FSL_I2C2_SPEED for the speed and
		    CONFIG_SYS_FSL_I2C2_SLAVE for the slave address of the
		    second bus.

		- drivers/i2c/tegra_i2c.c:
		  - activate this driver with CONFIG_SYS_I2C_TEGRA
		  - This driver adds 4 i2c buses with a fix speed from
		    100000 and the slave addr 0!

		- drivers/i2c/ppc4xx_i2c.c
		  - activate this driver with CONFIG_SYS_I2C_PPC4XX
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_PPC4XX_CH0 activate hardware channel 0
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_PPC4XX_CH1 activate hardware channel 1

		- drivers/i2c/i2c_mxc.c
		  - activate this driver with CONFIG_SYS_I2C_MXC
		  - enable bus 1 with CONFIG_SYS_I2C_MXC_I2C1
		  - enable bus 2 with CONFIG_SYS_I2C_MXC_I2C2
		  - enable bus 3 with CONFIG_SYS_I2C_MXC_I2C3
		  - enable bus 4 with CONFIG_SYS_I2C_MXC_I2C4
		  - define speed for bus 1 with CONFIG_SYS_MXC_I2C1_SPEED
		  - define slave for bus 1 with CONFIG_SYS_MXC_I2C1_SLAVE
		  - define speed for bus 2 with CONFIG_SYS_MXC_I2C2_SPEED
		  - define slave for bus 2 with CONFIG_SYS_MXC_I2C2_SLAVE
		  - define speed for bus 3 with CONFIG_SYS_MXC_I2C3_SPEED
		  - define slave for bus 3 with CONFIG_SYS_MXC_I2C3_SLAVE
		  - define speed for bus 4 with CONFIG_SYS_MXC_I2C4_SPEED
		  - define slave for bus 4 with CONFIG_SYS_MXC_I2C4_SLAVE
		If those defines are not set, default value is 100000
		for speed, and 0 for slave.

		- drivers/i2c/rcar_i2c.c:
		  - activate this driver with CONFIG_SYS_I2C_RCAR
		  - This driver adds 4 i2c buses

		- drivers/i2c/sh_i2c.c:
		  - activate this driver with CONFIG_SYS_I2C_SH
		  - This driver adds from 2 to 5 i2c buses

		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_SH_BASE0 for setting the register channel 0
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_SH_SPEED0 for for the speed channel 0
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_SH_BASE1 for setting the register channel 1
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_SH_SPEED1 for for the speed channel 1
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_SH_BASE2 for setting the register channel 2
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_SH_SPEED2 for for the speed channel 2
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_SH_BASE3 for setting the register channel 3
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_SH_SPEED3 for for the speed channel 3
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_SH_BASE4 for setting the register channel 4
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_SH_SPEED4 for for the speed channel 4
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_SH_NUM_CONTROLLERS for number of i2c buses

		- drivers/i2c/omap24xx_i2c.c
		  - activate this driver with CONFIG_SYS_I2C_OMAP24XX
		  - CONFIG_SYS_OMAP24_I2C_SPEED speed channel 0
		  - CONFIG_SYS_OMAP24_I2C_SLAVE slave addr channel 0
		  - CONFIG_SYS_OMAP24_I2C_SPEED1 speed channel 1
		  - CONFIG_SYS_OMAP24_I2C_SLAVE1 slave addr channel 1
		  - CONFIG_SYS_OMAP24_I2C_SPEED2 speed channel 2
		  - CONFIG_SYS_OMAP24_I2C_SLAVE2 slave addr channel 2
		  - CONFIG_SYS_OMAP24_I2C_SPEED3 speed channel 3
		  - CONFIG_SYS_OMAP24_I2C_SLAVE3 slave addr channel 3
		  - CONFIG_SYS_OMAP24_I2C_SPEED4 speed channel 4
		  - CONFIG_SYS_OMAP24_I2C_SLAVE4 slave addr channel 4

		- drivers/i2c/s3c24x0_i2c.c:
		  - activate this driver with CONFIG_SYS_I2C_S3C24X0
		  - This driver adds i2c buses (11 for Exynos5250, Exynos5420
		    9 i2c buses for Exynos4 and 1 for S3C24X0 SoCs from Samsung)
		    with a fix speed from 100000 and the slave addr 0!

		- drivers/i2c/ihs_i2c.c
		  - activate this driver with CONFIG_SYS_I2C_IHS
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_IHS_CH0 activate hardware channel 0
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_IHS_SPEED_0 speed channel 0
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_IHS_SLAVE_0 slave addr channel 0
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_IHS_CH1 activate hardware channel 1
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_IHS_SPEED_1 speed channel 1
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_IHS_SLAVE_1 slave addr channel 1
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_IHS_CH2 activate hardware channel 2
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_IHS_SPEED_2 speed channel 2
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_IHS_SLAVE_2 slave addr channel 2
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_IHS_CH3 activate hardware channel 3
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_IHS_SPEED_3 speed channel 3
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_IHS_SLAVE_3 slave addr channel 3
		  - activate dual channel with CONFIG_SYS_I2C_IHS_DUAL
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_IHS_SPEED_0_1 speed channel 0_1
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_IHS_SLAVE_0_1 slave addr channel 0_1
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_IHS_SPEED_1_1 speed channel 1_1
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_IHS_SLAVE_1_1 slave addr channel 1_1
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_IHS_SPEED_2_1 speed channel 2_1
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_IHS_SLAVE_2_1 slave addr channel 2_1
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_IHS_SPEED_3_1 speed channel 3_1
		  - CONFIG_SYS_I2C_IHS_SLAVE_3_1 slave addr channel 3_1

		additional defines:

		Hold the number of i2c buses you want to use.

		define this, if you don't use i2c muxes on your hardware.
		if CONFIG_SYS_I2C_MAX_HOPS is not defined or == 0 you can
		omit this define.

		define how many muxes are maximal consecutively connected
		on one i2c bus. If you not use i2c muxes, omit this

		hold a list of buses you want to use, only used if
		CONFIG_SYS_I2C_DIRECT_BUS is not defined, for example
		a board with CONFIG_SYS_I2C_MAX_HOPS = 1 and

					{0, {{I2C_MUX_PCA9547, 0x70, 1}}}, \
					{0, {{I2C_MUX_PCA9547, 0x70, 2}}}, \
					{0, {{I2C_MUX_PCA9547, 0x70, 3}}}, \
					{0, {{I2C_MUX_PCA9547, 0x70, 4}}}, \
					{0, {{I2C_MUX_PCA9547, 0x70, 5}}}, \
					{1, {I2C_NULL_HOP}}, \
					{1, {{I2C_MUX_PCA9544, 0x72, 1}}}, \
					{1, {{I2C_MUX_PCA9544, 0x72, 2}}}, \

		which defines
			bus 0 on adapter 0 without a mux
			bus 1 on adapter 0 with a PCA9547 on address 0x70 port 1
			bus 2 on adapter 0 with a PCA9547 on address 0x70 port 2
			bus 3 on adapter 0 with a PCA9547 on address 0x70 port 3
			bus 4 on adapter 0 with a PCA9547 on address 0x70 port 4
			bus 5 on adapter 0 with a PCA9547 on address 0x70 port 5
			bus 6 on adapter 1 without a mux
			bus 7 on adapter 1 with a PCA9544 on address 0x72 port 1
			bus 8 on adapter 1 with a PCA9544 on address 0x72 port 2

		If you do not have i2c muxes on your board, omit this define.

- Legacy I2C Support:
		If you use the software i2c interface (CONFIG_SYS_I2C_SOFT)
		then the following macros need to be defined (examples are
		from include/configs/lwmon.h):


		(Optional). Any commands necessary to enable the I2C
		controller or configure ports.

		eg: #define I2C_INIT (immr->im_cpm.cp_pbdir |=	PB_SCL)


		The code necessary to make the I2C data line active
		(driven).  If the data line is open collector, this
		define can be null.

		eg: #define I2C_ACTIVE (immr->im_cpm.cp_pbdir |=  PB_SDA)


		The code necessary to make the I2C data line tri-stated
		(inactive).  If the data line is open collector, this
		define can be null.

		eg: #define I2C_TRISTATE (immr->im_cpm.cp_pbdir &= ~PB_SDA)


		Code that returns true if the I2C data line is high,
		false if it is low.

		eg: #define I2C_READ ((immr->im_cpm.cp_pbdat & PB_SDA) != 0)


		If <bit> is true, sets the I2C data line high. If it
		is false, it clears it (low).

		eg: #define I2C_SDA(bit) \
			if(bit) immr->im_cpm.cp_pbdat |=  PB_SDA; \
			else	immr->im_cpm.cp_pbdat &= ~PB_SDA


		If <bit> is true, sets the I2C clock line high. If it
		is false, it clears it (low).

		eg: #define I2C_SCL(bit) \
			if(bit) immr->im_cpm.cp_pbdat |=  PB_SCL; \
			else	immr->im_cpm.cp_pbdat &= ~PB_SCL


		This delay is invoked four times per clock cycle so this
		controls the rate of data transfer.  The data rate thus
		is 1 / (I2C_DELAY * 4). Often defined to be something

		#define I2C_DELAY  udelay(2)


		If your arch supports the generic GPIO framework (asm/gpio.h),
		then you may alternatively define the two GPIOs that are to be
		used as SCL / SDA.  Any of the previous I2C_xxx macros will
		have GPIO-based defaults assigned to them as appropriate.

		You should define these to the GPIO value as given directly to
		the generic GPIO functions.


		When a board is reset during an i2c bus transfer
		chips might think that the current transfer is still
		in progress. On some boards it is possible to access
		the i2c SCLK line directly, either by using the
		processor pin as a GPIO or by having a second pin
		connected to the bus. If this option is defined a
		custom i2c_init_board() routine in boards/xxx/board.c
		is run early in the boot sequence.


		This option allows the use of multiple I2C buses, each of which
		must have a controller.	 At any point in time, only one bus is
		active.	 To switch to a different bus, use the 'i2c dev' command.
		Note that bus numbering is zero-based.


		This option specifies a list of I2C devices that will be skipped
		when the 'i2c probe' command is issued.	 If CONFIG_I2C_MULTI_BUS
		is set, specify a list of bus-device pairs.  Otherwise, specify
		a 1D array of device addresses

			#define CONFIG_SYS_I2C_NOPROBES {0x50,0x68}

		will skip addresses 0x50 and 0x68 on a board with one I2C bus

			#define CONFIG_SYS_I2C_NOPROBES	{{0,0x50},{0,0x68},{1,0x54}}

		will skip addresses 0x50 and 0x68 on bus 0 and address 0x54 on bus 1


		If defined, then this indicates the I2C bus number for DDR SPD.
		If not defined, then U-Boot assumes that SPD is on I2C bus 0.


		If defined, then this indicates the I2C bus number for the RTC.
		If not defined, then U-Boot assumes that RTC is on I2C bus 0.


		defining this will force the i2c_read() function in
		the soft_i2c driver to perform an I2C repeated start
		between writing the address pointer and reading the
		data.  If this define is omitted the default behaviour
		of doing a stop-start sequence will be used.  Most I2C
		devices can use either method, but some require one or
		the other.


		Enables SPI driver (so far only tested with
		SPI EEPROM, also an instance works with Crystal A/D and
		D/As on the SACSng board)


		Enables a software (bit-bang) SPI driver rather than
		using hardware support. This is a general purpose
		driver that only requires three general I/O port pins
		(two outputs, one input) to function. If this is
		defined, the board configuration must define several
		SPI configuration items (port pins to use, etc). For
		an example, see include/configs/sacsng.h.

		Timeout for waiting until spi transfer completed.
		default: (CONFIG_SYS_HZ/100)     /* 10 ms */


		Enables FPGA subsystem.


		Enables support for specific chip vendors.


		Enables support for FPGA family.


		Specify the number of FPGA devices to support.


		Enable printing of hash marks during FPGA configuration.


		Enable checks on FPGA configuration interface busy
		status by the configuration function. This option
		will require a board or device specific function to
		be written.


		If defined, a function that provides delays in the FPGA
		configuration driver.

		Allow Control-C to interrupt FPGA configuration


		Check for configuration errors during FPGA bitfile
		loading. For example, abort during Virtex II
		configuration if the INIT_B line goes low (which
		indicated a CRC error).


		Maximum time to wait for the INIT_B line to de-assert
		after PROB_B has been de-asserted during a Virtex II
		FPGA configuration sequence. The default time is 500


		Maximum time to wait for BUSY to de-assert during
		Virtex II FPGA configuration. The default is 5 ms.


		Time to wait after FPGA configuration. The default is
		200 ms.

- Configuration Management:


		If defined, this string will be added to the U-Boot
		version information (U_BOOT_VERSION)

- Vendor Parameter Protection:

		U-Boot considers the values of the environment
		variables "serial#" (Board Serial Number) and
		"ethaddr" (Ethernet Address) to be parameters that
		are set once by the board vendor / manufacturer, and
		protects these variables from casual modification by
		the user. Once set, these variables are read-only,
		and write or delete attempts are rejected. You can
		change this behaviour:

		If CONFIG_ENV_OVERWRITE is #defined in your config
		file, the write protection for vendor parameters is
		completely disabled. Anybody can change or delete
		these parameters.

		Alternatively, if you define _both_ an ethaddr in the
		default env _and_ CONFIG_OVERWRITE_ETHADDR_ONCE, a default
		Ethernet address is installed in the environment,
		which can be changed exactly ONCE by the user. [The
		serial# is unaffected by this, i. e. it remains

		The same can be accomplished in a more flexible way
		for any variable by configuring the type of access
		to allow for those variables in the ".flags" variable

- Protected RAM:

		Define this variable to enable the reservation of
		"protected RAM", i. e. RAM which is not overwritten
		by U-Boot. Define CONFIG_PRAM to hold the number of
		kB you want to reserve for pRAM. You can overwrite
		this default value by defining an environment
		variable "pram" to the number of kB you want to
		reserve. Note that the board info structure will
		still show the full amount of RAM. If pRAM is
		reserved, a new environment variable "mem" will
		automatically be defined to hold the amount of
		remaining RAM in a form that can be passed as boot
		argument to Linux, for instance like that:

			setenv bootargs ... mem=\${mem}

		This way you can tell Linux not to use this memory,
		either, which results in a memory region that will
		not be affected by reboots.

		*WARNING* If your board configuration uses automatic
		detection of the RAM size, you must make sure that
		this memory test is non-destructive. So far, the
		following board configurations are known to be

			IVMS8, IVML24, SPD8xx,
			HERMES, IP860, RPXlite, LWMON,

- Access to physical memory region (> 4GB)
		Some basic support is provided for operations on memory not
		normally accessible to U-Boot - e.g. some architectures
		support access to more than 4GB of memory on 32-bit
		machines using physical address extension or similar.
		Define CONFIG_PHYSMEM to access this basic support, which
		currently only supports clearing the memory.

- Error Recovery:

		This variable defines the number of retries for
		network operations like ARP, RARP, TFTP, or BOOTP
		before giving up the operation. If not defined, a
		default value of 5 is used.


		Timeout waiting for an ARP reply in milliseconds.


		Timeout in milliseconds used in NFS protocol.
		If you encounter "ERROR: Cannot umount" in nfs command,
		try longer timeout such as
		#define CONFIG_NFS_TIMEOUT 10000UL


		In the current implementation, the local variables
		space and global environment variables space are
		separated. Local variables are those you define by
		simply typing `name=value'. To access a local
		variable later on, you have write `$name' or
		`${name}'; to execute the contents of a variable
		directly type `$name' at the command prompt.

		Global environment variables are those you use
		setenv/printenv to work with. To run a command stored
		in such a variable, you need to use the run command,
		and you must not use the '$' sign to access them.

		To store commands and special characters in a
		variable, please use double quotation marks
		surrounding the whole text of the variable, instead
		of the backslashes before semicolons and special

- Command Line Editing and History:

		Enable support for changing the command prompt string
		at run-time. Only static string is supported so far.
		The string is obtained from environment variables PS1
		and PS2.

- Default Environment:

		Define this to contain any number of null terminated
		strings (variable = value pairs) that will be part of
		the default environment compiled into the boot image.

		For example, place something like this in your
		board's config file:

			"myvar1=value1\0" \

		Warning: This method is based on knowledge about the
		internal format how the environment is stored by the
		U-Boot code. This is NOT an official, exported
		interface! Although it is unlikely that this format
		will change soon, there is no guarantee either.
		You better know what you are doing here.

		Note: overly (ab)use of the default environment is
		discouraged. Make sure to check other ways to preset
		the environment like the "source" command or the
		boot command first.


		Normally the environment is loaded when the board is
		initialised so that it is available to U-Boot. This inhibits
		that so that the environment is not available until
		explicitly loaded later by U-Boot code. With CONFIG_OF_CONTROL
		this is instead controlled by the value of

- TFTP Fixed UDP Port:

		If this is defined, the environment variable tftpsrcp
		is used to supply the TFTP UDP source port value.
		If tftpsrcp isn't defined, the normal pseudo-random port
		number generator is used.

		Also, the environment variable tftpdstp is used to supply
		the TFTP UDP destination port value.  If tftpdstp isn't
		defined, the normal port 69 is used.

		The purpose for tftpsrcp is to allow a TFTP server to
		blindly start the TFTP transfer using the pre-configured
		target IP address and UDP port. This has the effect of
		"punching through" the (Windows XP) firewall, allowing
		the remainder of the TFTP transfer to proceed normally.
		A better solution is to properly configure the firewall,
		but sometimes that is not allowed.


		This option defines a board specific value for the
		address where standalone program gets loaded, thus
		overwriting the architecture dependent default

- Frame Buffer Address:

		Define CONFIG_FB_ADDR if you want to use specific
		address for frame buffer.  This is typically the case
		when using a graphics controller has separate video
		memory.  U-Boot will then place the frame buffer at
		the given address instead of dynamically reserving it
		in system RAM by calling lcd_setmem(), which grabs
		the memory for the frame buffer depending on the
		configured panel size.

		Please see board_init_f function.

- Automatic software updates via TFTP server

		These options enable and control the auto-update feature;
		for a more detailed description refer to doc/README.update.

- MTD Support (mtdparts command, UBI support)
		This parameter defines the maximum difference between the highest
		erase counter value and the lowest erase counter value of eraseblocks
		of UBI devices. When this threshold is exceeded, UBI starts performing
		wear leveling by means of moving data from eraseblock with low erase
		counter to eraseblocks with high erase counter.

		The default value should be OK for SLC NAND flashes, NOR flashes and
		other flashes which have eraseblock life-cycle 100000 or more.
		However, in case of MLC NAND flashes which typically have eraseblock
		life-cycle less than 10000, the threshold should be lessened (e.g.,
		to 128 or 256, although it does not have to be power of 2).

		default: 4096

		This option specifies the maximum bad physical eraseblocks UBI
		expects on the MTD device (per 1024 eraseblocks). If the
		underlying flash does not admit of bad eraseblocks (e.g. NOR
		flash), this value is ignored.

		NAND datasheets often specify the minimum and maximum NVM
		(Number of Valid Blocks) for the flashes' endurance lifetime.
		The maximum expected bad eraseblocks per 1024 eraseblocks
		then can be calculated as "1024 * (1 - MinNVB / MaxNVB)",
		which gives 20 for most NANDs (MaxNVB is basically the total
		count of eraseblocks on the chip).

		To put it differently, if this value is 20, UBI will try to
		reserve about 1.9% of physical eraseblocks for bad blocks
		handling. And that will be 1.9% of eraseblocks on the entire
		NAND chip, not just the MTD partition UBI attaches. This means
		that if you have, say, a NAND flash chip admits maximum 40 bad
		eraseblocks, and it is split on two MTD partitions of the same
		size, UBI will reserve 40 eraseblocks when attaching a

		default: 20

		Fastmap is a mechanism which allows attaching an UBI device
		in nearly constant time. Instead of scanning the whole MTD device it
		only has to locate a checkpoint (called fastmap) on the device.
		The on-flash fastmap contains all information needed to attach
		the device. Using fastmap makes only sense on large devices where
		attaching by scanning takes long. UBI will not automatically install
		a fastmap on old images, but you can set the UBI parameter
		CONFIG_MTD_UBI_FASTMAP_AUTOCONVERT to 1 if you want so. Please note
		that fastmap-enabled images are still usable with UBI implementations
		without	fastmap support. On typical flash devices the whole fastmap
		fits into one PEB. UBI will reserve PEBs to hold two fastmaps.

		Set this parameter to enable fastmap automatically on images
		without a fastmap.
		default: 0

		Enable UBI fastmap debug
		default: 0

- SPL framework
		Enable building of SPL globally.

		LDSCRIPT for linking the SPL binary.

		Maximum size in memory allocated to the SPL, BSS included.
		When defined, the linker checks that the actual memory
		used by SPL from _start to __bss_end does not exceed it.
		must not be both defined at the same time.

		Maximum size of the SPL image (text, data, rodata, and
		linker lists sections), BSS excluded.
		When defined, the linker checks that the actual size does
		not exceed it.

		Address to relocate to.  If unspecified, this is equal to
		CONFIG_SPL_TEXT_BASE (i.e. no relocation is done).

		Link address for the BSS within the SPL binary.

		Maximum size in memory allocated to the SPL BSS.
		When defined, the linker checks that the actual memory used
		by SPL from __bss_start to __bss_end does not exceed it.
		must not be both defined at the same time.

		Adress of the start of the stack SPL will use

		When defined, SPL will panic() if the image it has
		loaded does not have a signature.
		Defining this is useful when code which loads images
		in SPL cannot guarantee that absolutely all read errors
		will be caught.
		An example is the LPC32XX MLC NAND driver, which will
		consider that a completely unreadable NAND block is bad,
		and thus should be skipped silently.

		Adress of the start of the stack SPL will use after
		relocation.  If unspecified, this is equal to

		Starting address of the malloc pool used in SPL.
		When this option is set the full malloc is used in SPL and
		it is set up by spl_init() and before that, the simple malloc()
		can be used if CONFIG_SYS_MALLOC_F is defined.

		The size of the malloc pool used in SPL.

		Enable booting directly to an OS from SPL.
		See also: doc/README.falcon

		For ARM, enable an optional function to print more information
		about the running system.

		Arch init code should be built for a very small image

		Partition on the MMC to load U-Boot from when the MMC is being
		used in raw mode

		Sector to load kernel uImage from when MMC is being
		used in raw mode (for Falcon mode)

		Sector and number of sectors to load kernel argument
		parameters from when MMC is being used in raw mode
		(for falcon mode)

		Filename to read to load U-Boot when reading from filesystem

		Filename to read to load kernel uImage when reading
		from filesystem (for Falcon mode)

		Filename to read to load kernel argument parameters
		when reading from filesystem (for Falcon mode)

		Set this for NAND SPL on PPC mpc83xx targets, so that
		start.S waits for the rest of the SPL to load before
		continuing (the hardware starts execution after just
		loading the first page rather than the full 4K).

		Avoid SPL relocation

		SPL uses the chip ID list to identify the NAND flash.

		Support for a lightweight UBI (fastmap) scanner and

		Support to boot only raw u-boot.bin images. Use this only
		if you need to save space.

		Set for common ddr init with serial presence detect in
		SPL binary.

		Defines the size and behavior of the NAND that SPL uses
		to read U-Boot

		Location in NAND to read U-Boot from

		Location in memory to load U-Boot to

		Size of image to load

		Entry point in loaded image to jump to

		Define this if you need to first read the OOB and then the
		data. This is used, for example, on davinci platforms.

		Support for running image already present in ram, in SPL binary

		Image offset to which the SPL should be padded before appending
		the SPL payload. By default, this is defined as
		CONFIG_SPL_MAX_SIZE, or 0 if CONFIG_SPL_MAX_SIZE is undefined.
		CONFIG_SPL_PAD_TO must be either 0, meaning to append the SPL
		payload without any padding, or >= CONFIG_SPL_MAX_SIZE.

		Final target image containing SPL and payload.  Some SPLs
		use an arch-specific makefile fragment instead, for
		example if more than one image needs to be produced.

		Printing information about a FIT image adds quite a bit of
		code to SPL. So this is normally disabled in SPL. Use this
		option to re-enable it. This will affect the output of the
		bootm command when booting a FIT image.

- TPL framework
		Enable building of TPL globally.

		Image offset to which the TPL should be padded before appending
		the TPL payload. By default, this is defined as
		CONFIG_SPL_MAX_SIZE, or 0 if CONFIG_SPL_MAX_SIZE is undefined.
		CONFIG_SPL_PAD_TO must be either 0, meaning to append the SPL
		payload without any padding, or >= CONFIG_SPL_MAX_SIZE.

- Interrupt support (PPC):

		There are common interrupt_init() and timer_interrupt()
		for all PPC archs. interrupt_init() calls interrupt_init_cpu()
		for CPU specific initialization. interrupt_init_cpu()
		should set decrementer_count to appropriate value. If
		CPU resets decrementer automatically after interrupt
		(ppc4xx) it should set decrementer_count to zero.
		timer_interrupt() calls timer_interrupt_cpu() for CPU
		specific handling. If board has watchdog / status_led
		/ other_activity_monitor it works automatically from
		general timer_interrupt().

Board initialization settings:

During Initialization u-boot calls a number of board specific functions
to allow the preparation of board specific prerequisites, e.g. pin setup
before drivers are initialized. To enable these callbacks the
following configuration macros have to be defined. Currently this is
architecture specific, so please check arch/your_architecture/lib/board.c
typically in board_init_f() and board_init_r().

- CONFIG_BOARD_EARLY_INIT_F: Call board_early_init_f()
- CONFIG_BOARD_EARLY_INIT_R: Call board_early_init_r()
- CONFIG_BOARD_LATE_INIT: Call board_late_init()
- CONFIG_BOARD_POSTCLK_INIT: Call board_postclk_init()

Configuration Settings:

- MEM_SUPPORT_64BIT_DATA: Defined automatically if compiled as 64-bit.
		Optionally it can be defined to support 64-bit memory commands.

- CONFIG_SYS_LONGHELP: Defined when you want long help messages included;
		undefine this when you're short of memory.

- CONFIG_SYS_HELP_CMD_WIDTH: Defined when you want to override the default
		width of the commands listed in the 'help' command output.

- CONFIG_SYS_PROMPT:	This is what U-Boot prints on the console to
		prompt for user input.

- CONFIG_SYS_CBSIZE:	Buffer size for input from the Console

- CONFIG_SYS_PBSIZE:	Buffer size for Console output

- CONFIG_SYS_MAXARGS:	max. Number of arguments accepted for monitor commands

- CONFIG_SYS_BARGSIZE: Buffer size for Boot Arguments which are passed to
		the application (usually a Linux kernel) when it is

		List of legal baudrate settings for this board.

		Only implemented for ARMv8 for now.
		If defined, the size of CONFIG_SYS_MEM_RESERVE_SECURE memory
		is substracted from total RAM and won't be reported to OS.
		This memory can be used as secure memory. A variable
		gd->arch.secure_ram is used to track the location. In systems
		the RAM base is not zero, or RAM is divided into banks,
		this variable needs to be recalcuated to get the address.

		If CONFIG_SYS_MEM_TOP_HIDE is defined in the board config header,
		this specified memory area will get subtracted from the top
		(end) of RAM and won't get "touched" at all by U-Boot. By
		fixing up gd->ram_size the Linux kernel should gets passed
		the now "corrected" memory size and won't touch it either.
		This should work for arch/ppc and arch/powerpc. Only Linux
		board ports in arch/powerpc with bootwrapper support that
		recalculate the memory size from the SDRAM controller setup
		will have to get fixed in Linux additionally.

		This option can be used as a workaround for the 440EPx/GRx
		CHIP 11 errata where the last 256 bytes in SDRAM shouldn't
		be touched.

		WARNING: Please make sure that this value is a multiple of
		the Linux page size (normally 4k). If this is not the case,
		then the end address of the Linux memory will be located at a
		non page size aligned address and this could cause major

		Enable temporary baudrate change while serial download

		Physical start address of SDRAM. _Must_ be 0 here.

		Physical start address of Flash memory.

		Physical start address of boot monitor code (set by
		make config files to be same as the text base address
		(CONFIG_SYS_TEXT_BASE) used when linking) - same as
		CONFIG_SYS_FLASH_BASE when booting from flash.

		Size of memory reserved for monitor code, used to
		determine _at_compile_time_ (!) if the environment is
		embedded within the U-Boot image, or in a separate
		flash sector.

		Size of DRAM reserved for malloc() use.

		Size of the malloc() pool for use before relocation. If
		this is defined, then a very simple malloc() implementation
		will become available before relocation. The address is just
		below the global data, and the stack is moved down to make

		This feature allocates regions with increasing addresses
		within the region. calloc() is supported, but realloc()
		is not available. free() is supported but does nothing.
		The memory will be freed (or in fact just forgotten) when
		U-Boot relocates itself.

		Provides a simple and small malloc() and calloc() for those
		boards which do not use the full malloc in SPL (which is

		Size of non-cached memory area. This area of memory will be
		typically located right below the malloc() area and mapped
		uncached in the MMU. This is useful for drivers that would
		otherwise require a lot of explicit cache maintenance. For
		some drivers it's also impossible to properly maintain the
		cache. For example if the regions that need to be flushed
		are not a multiple of the cache-line size, *and* padding
		cannot be allocated between the regions to align them (i.e.
		if the HW requires a contiguous array of regions, and the
		size of each region is not cache-aligned), then a flush of
		one region may result in overwriting data that hardware has
		written to another region in the same cache-line. This can
		happen for example in network drivers where descriptors for
		buffers are typically smaller than the CPU cache-line (e.g.
		16 bytes vs. 32 or 64 bytes).

		Non-cached memory is only supported on 32-bit ARM at present.

		Normally compressed uImages are limited to an
		uncompressed size of 8 MBytes. If this is not enough,
		you can define CONFIG_SYS_BOOTM_LEN in your board config file
		to adjust this setting to your needs.

		Maximum size of memory mapped by the startup code of
		the Linux kernel; all data that must be processed by
		the Linux kernel (bd_info, boot arguments, FDT blob if
		used) must be put below this limit, unless "bootm_low"
		environment variable is defined and non-zero. In such case
		all data for the Linux kernel must be between "bootm_low"
		and "bootm_low" + CONFIG_SYS_BOOTMAPSZ.	 The environment
		variable "bootm_mapsize" will override the value of
		then the value in "bootm_size" will be used instead.

		Enable initrd_high functionality.  If defined then the
		initrd_high feature is enabled and the bootm ramdisk subcommand
		is enabled.

		Enables allocating and saving kernel cmdline in space between
		"bootm_low" and "bootm_low" + BOOTMAPSZ.

		Enables allocating and saving a kernel copy of the bd_info in
		space between "bootm_low" and "bootm_low" + BOOTMAPSZ.

		Max number of Flash memory banks

		Max number of sectors on a Flash chip

		Timeout for Flash erase operations (in ms)

		Timeout for Flash write operations (in ms)

		Timeout for Flash set sector lock bit operation (in ms)

		Timeout for Flash clear lock bits operation (in ms)

		If defined, hardware flash sectors protection is used
		instead of U-Boot software protection.


		Enable TFTP transfers directly to flash memory;
		without this option such a download has to be
		performed in two steps: (1) download to RAM, and (2)
		copy from RAM to flash.

		The two-step approach is usually more reliable, since
		you can check if the download worked before you erase
		the flash, but in some situations (when system RAM is
		too limited to allow for a temporary copy of the
		downloaded image) this option may be very useful.

		Define if the flash driver uses extra elements in the
		common flash structure for storing flash geometry.

		This option also enables the building of the cfi_flash driver
		in the drivers directory

		This option enables the building of the cfi_mtd driver
		in the drivers directory. The driver exports CFI flash
		to the MTD layer.

		Use buffered writes to flash.

		s29ws-n MirrorBit flash has non-standard addresses for buffered
		write commands.

		If this option is defined, the common CFI flash doesn't
		print it's warning upon not recognized FLASH banks. This
		is useful, if some of the configured banks are only
		optionally available.

		If defined (must be an integer), print out countdown
		digits and dots.  Recommended value: 45 (9..1) for 80
		column displays, 15 (3..1) for 40 column displays.

		If defined, the content of the flash (destination) is compared
		against the source after the write operation. An error message
		will be printed when the contents are not identical.
		Please note that this option is useless in nearly all cases,
		since such flash programming errors usually are detected earlier
		while unprotecting/erasing/programming. Please only enable
		this option if you really know what you are doing.

		Defines the number of Ethernet receive buffers. On some
		Ethernet controllers it is recommended to set this value
		to 8 or even higher (EEPRO100 or 405 EMAC), since all
		buffers can be full shortly after enabling the interface
		on high Ethernet traffic.
		Defaults to 4 if not defined.


	Maximum number of entries in the hash table that is used
	internally to store the environment settings. The default
	setting is supposed to be generous and should work in most
	cases. This setting can be used to tune behaviour; see
	lib/hashtable.c for details.

	Enable validation of the values given to environment variables when
	calling env set.  Variables can be restricted to only decimal,
	hexadecimal, or boolean.  If CONFIG_CMD_NET is also defined,
	the variables can also be restricted to IP address or MAC address.

	The format of the list is:
		type_attribute = [s|d|x|b|i|m]
		access_attribute = [a|r|o|c]
		attributes = type_attribute[access_attribute]
		entry = variable_name[:attributes]
		list = entry[,list]

	The type attributes are:
		s - String (default)
		d - Decimal
		x - Hexadecimal
		b - Boolean ([1yYtT|0nNfF])
		i - IP address
		m - MAC address

	The access attributes are:
		a - Any (default)
		r - Read-only
		o - Write-once
		c - Change-default

		Define this to a list (string) to define the ".flags"
		environment variable in the default or embedded environment.

		Define this to a list (string) to define validation that
		should be done if an entry is not found in the ".flags"
		environment variable.  To override a setting in the static
		list, simply add an entry for the same variable name to the
		".flags" variable.

	If CONFIG_REGEX is defined, the variable_name above is evaluated as a
	regular expression. This allows multiple variables to define the same
	flags without explicitly listing them for each variable.

The following definitions that deal with the placement and management
of environment data (variable area); in general, we support the
following configurations:


	Builds up envcrc with the target environment so that external utils
	may easily extract it and embed it in final U-Boot images.

BE CAREFUL! The first access to the environment happens quite early
in U-Boot initialization (when we try to get the setting of for the
console baudrate). You *MUST* have mapped your NVRAM area then, or
U-Boot will hang.

Please note that even with NVRAM we still use a copy of the
environment in RAM: we could work on NVRAM directly, but we want to
keep settings there always unmodified except somebody uses "saveenv"
to save the current settings.

BE CAREFUL! For some special cases, the local device can not use
"saveenv" command. For example, the local device will get the
environment stored in a remote NOR flash by SRIO or PCIE link,
but it can not erase, write this NOR flash by SRIO or PCIE interface.


	Defines address in RAM to which the nand_spl code should copy the
	environment. If redundant environment is used, it will be copied to

Please note that the environment is read-only until the monitor
has been relocated to RAM and a RAM copy of the environment has been
created; also, when using EEPROM you will have to use env_get_f()
until then to read environment variables.

The environment is protected by a CRC32 checksum. Before the monitor
is relocated into RAM, as a result of a bad CRC you will be working
with the compiled-in default environment - *silently*!!! [This is
necessary, because the first environment variable we need is the
"baudrate" setting for the console - if we have a bad CRC, we don't
have any device yet where we could complain.]

Note: once the monitor has been relocated, then it will complain if
the default environment is used; a new CRC is computed as soon as you
use the "saveenv" command to store a valid environment.

		Echo the inverted Ethernet link state to the fault LED.

		Note: If this option is active, then CONFIG_SYS_FAULT_MII_ADDR
		      also needs to be defined.

		MII address of the PHY to check for the Ethernet link state.

		Define this if you desire to only have use of the NS16550_init
		and NS16550_putc functions for the serial driver located at
		drivers/serial/ns16550.c.  This option is useful for saving
		space for already greatly restricted images, including but not
		limited to NAND_SPL configurations.

		Display information about the board that U-Boot is running on
		when U-Boot starts up. The board function checkboard() is called
		to do this.

		Similar to the previous option, but display this information
		later, once stdio is running and output goes to the LCD, if

		Maximum size of the U-Boot image. When defined, the
		build system checks that the actual size does not
		exceed it.

Low Level (hardware related) configuration options:

		Cache Line Size of the CPU.

		Default (power-on reset) physical address of CCSR on Freescale
		PowerPC SOCs.

		Virtual address of CCSR.  On a 32-bit build, this is typically
		the same value as CONFIG_SYS_CCSRBAR_DEFAULT.

		Physical address of CCSR.  CCSR can be relocated to a new
		physical address, if desired.  In this case, this macro should
		be set to that address.	 Otherwise, it should be set to the
		same value as CONFIG_SYS_CCSRBAR_DEFAULT.  For example, CCSR
		is typically relocated on 36-bit builds.  It is recommended
		that this macro be defined via the _HIGH and _LOW macros:

			* 1ull) << 32 | CONFIG_SYS_CCSRBAR_PHYS_LOW)

		Bits 33-36 of CONFIG_SYS_CCSRBAR_PHYS.	This value is typically
		either 0 (32-bit build) or 0xF (36-bit build).	This macro is
		used in assembly code, so it must not contain typecasts or
		integer size suffixes (e.g. "ULL").

		Lower 32-bits of CONFIG_SYS_CCSRBAR_PHYS.  This macro is
		used in assembly code, so it must not contain typecasts or
		integer size suffixes (e.g. "ULL").

		If this macro is defined, then CONFIG_SYS_CCSRBAR_PHYS will be
		forced to a value that ensures that CCSR is not relocated.

		Most IDE controllers were designed to be connected with PCI
		interface. Only few of them were designed for AHB interface.
		When software is doing ATA command and data transfer to
		IDE devices through IDE-AHB controller, some additional
		registers accessing to these kind of IDE-AHB controller
		is required.

- CONFIG_SYS_IMMR:	Physical address of the Internal Memory.
		DO NOT CHANGE unless you know exactly what you're
		doing! (11-4) [MPC8xx systems only]


		Start address of memory area that can be used for
		initial data and stack; please note that this must be
		writable memory that is working WITHOUT special
		initialization, i. e. you CANNOT use normal RAM which
		will become available only after programming the
		memory controller and running certain initialization

		U-Boot uses the following memory types:
		- MPC8xx: IMMR (internal memory of the CPU)


		Offset of the initial data structure in the memory
		area defined by CONFIG_SYS_INIT_RAM_ADDR. Usually
		CONFIG_SYS_GBL_DATA_OFFSET is chosen such that the initial
		data is located at the end of the available space
		(sometimes written as (CONFIG_SYS_INIT_RAM_SIZE -
		GENERATED_GBL_DATA_SIZE), and the initial stack is just
		below that area (growing from (CONFIG_SYS_INIT_RAM_ADDR +

		On the MPC824X (or other systems that use the data
		cache for initial memory) the address chosen for
		CONFIG_SYS_INIT_RAM_ADDR is basically arbitrary - it must
		point to an otherwise UNUSED address space between
		the top of RAM and the start of the PCI space.

- CONFIG_SYS_SCCR:	System Clock and reset Control Register (15-27)

		SDRAM timing

		periodic timer for refresh

		Memory Controller Definitions: BR0/1 and OR0/1 (FLASH)

		Memory Controller Definitions: BR2/3 and OR2/3 (SDRAM)

		Chip has SRIO or not

		Board has SRIO 1 port available

		Board has SRIO 2 port available

		Board can support master function for Boot from SRIO and PCIE

		Virtual Address of SRIO port 'n' memory region

		Physical Address of SRIO port 'n' memory region

		Size of SRIO port 'n' memory region

		Defined to tell the NAND controller that the NAND chip is using
		a 16 bit bus.
		Not all NAND drivers use this symbol.
		Example of drivers that use it:
		- drivers/mtd/nand/raw/ndfc.c
		- drivers/mtd/nand/raw/mxc_nand.c

		Sets the EBC0_CFG register for the NDFC. If not defined
		a default value will be used.

		Get DDR timing information from an I2C EEPROM. Common
		with pluggable memory modules such as SODIMMs

		I2C address of the SPD EEPROM

		If SPD EEPROM is on an I2C bus other than the first
		one, specify here. Note that the value must resolve
		to something your driver can deal with.

		Get DDR timing information from other than SPD. Common with
		soldered DDR chips onboard without SPD. DDR raw timing
		parameters are extracted from datasheet and hard-coded into
		header files or board specific files.

		Enable interactive DDR debugging. See doc/README.fsl-ddr.

		Enable sync of refresh for multiple controllers.

		Enable built-in memory test for Freescale DDR controllers.

		Only for 83xx systems. If specified, then DDR should
		be configured using CS0 and CS1 instead of CS2 and CS3.

		Enable RMII mode for all FECs.
		Note that this is a global option, we can't
		have one FEC in standard MII mode and another in RMII mode.

		Add a verify option to the crc32 command.
		The syntax is:

		=> crc32 -v <address> <count> <crc32>

		Where address/count indicate a memory area
		and crc32 is the correct crc32 which the
		area should have.

		Add the "loopw" memory command. This only takes effect if
		the memory commands are activated globally (CONFIG_CMD_MEMORY).

		Add the "mdc" and "mwc" memory commands. These are cyclic
		"md/mw" commands.

		=> mdc.b 10 4 500
		This command will print 4 bytes (10,11,12,13) each 500 ms.

		=> mwc.l 100 12345678 10
		This command will write 12345678 to address 100 all 10 ms.

		This only takes effect if the memory commands are activated
		globally (CONFIG_CMD_MEMORY).

		[ARM, NDS32, MIPS, RISC-V only] If this variable is defined, then certain
		low level initializations (like setting up the memory
		controller) are omitted and/or U-Boot does not
		relocate itself into RAM.

		Normally this variable MUST NOT be defined. The only
		exception is when U-Boot is loaded (to RAM) by some
		other boot loader or by a debugger which performs
		these initializations itself.

		[ARM926EJ-S only] This allows just the call to lowlevel_init()
		to be skipped. The normal CP15 init (such as enabling the
		instruction cache) is still performed.

		Set when the currently-running compilation is for an artifact
		that will end up in the SPL (as opposed to the TPL or U-Boot
		proper). Code that needs stage-specific behavior should check

		Set when the currently-running compilation is for an artifact
		that will end up in the TPL (as opposed to the SPL or U-Boot
		proper). Code that needs stage-specific behavior should check

		Only for 85xx systems. If this variable is specified, the section
		.resetvec is not kept and the section .bootpg is placed in the
		previous 4k of the .text section.

		Generally U-Boot (and in particular the md command) uses
		effective address. It is therefore not necessary to regard
		U-Boot address as virtual addresses that need to be translated
		to physical addresses. However, sandbox requires this, since
		it maintains its own little RAM buffer which contains all
		addressable memory. This option causes some memory accesses
		to be mapped through map_sysmem() / unmap_sysmem().

		If defined, the x86 reset vector code is included. This is not
		needed when U-Boot is running from Coreboot.

		Option to disable subpage write in NAND driver
		driver that uses this:

Freescale QE/FMAN Firmware Support:

The Freescale QUICCEngine (QE) and Frame Manager (FMAN) both support the
loading of "firmware", which is encoded in the QE firmware binary format.
This firmware often needs to be loaded during U-Boot booting, so macros
are used to identify the storage device (NOR flash, SPI, etc) and the address
within that device.

	The address in the storage device where the FMAN microcode is located.  The
	meaning of this address depends on which CONFIG_SYS_QE_FMAN_FW_IN_xxx macro
	is also specified.

	The address in the storage device where the QE microcode is located.  The
	meaning of this address depends on which CONFIG_SYS_QE_FMAN_FW_IN_xxx macro
	is also specified.

	The maximum possible size of the firmware.  The firmware binary format
	has a field that specifies the actual size of the firmware, but it
	might not be possible to read any part of the firmware unless some
	local storage is allocated to hold the entire firmware first.

	Specifies that QE/FMAN firmware is located in NOR flash, mapped as
	normal addressable memory via the LBC.  CONFIG_SYS_FMAN_FW_ADDR is the
	virtual address in NOR flash.

	Specifies that QE/FMAN firmware is located in NAND flash.
	CONFIG_SYS_FMAN_FW_ADDR is the offset within NAND flash.

	Specifies that QE/FMAN firmware is located on the primary SD/MMC
	device.  CONFIG_SYS_FMAN_FW_ADDR is the byte offset on that device.

	Specifies that QE/FMAN firmware is located in the remote (master)
	memory space.	CONFIG_SYS_FMAN_FW_ADDR is a virtual address which
	can be mapped from slave TLB->slave LAW->slave SRIO or PCIE outbound
	window->master inbound window->master LAW->the ucode address in
	master's memory space.

Freescale Layerscape Management Complex Firmware Support:
The Freescale Layerscape Management Complex (MC) supports the loading of
This firmware often needs to be loaded during U-Boot booting, so macros
are used to identify the storage device (NOR flash, SPI, etc) and the address
within that device.

	Enable the MC driver for Layerscape SoCs.

Freescale Layerscape Debug Server Support:
The Freescale Layerscape Debug Server Support supports the loading of
"Debug Server firmware" and triggering SP boot-rom.
This firmware often needs to be loaded during U-Boot booting.

	Define alignment of reserved memory MC requires

Reproducible builds

In order to achieve reproducible builds, timestamps used in the U-Boot build
process have to be set to a fixed value.

This is done using the SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH environment variable.
SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH is to be set on the build host's shell, not as a configuration
option for U-Boot or an environment variable in U-Boot.

SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH should be set to a number of seconds since the epoch, in UTC.

Building the Software:

Building U-Boot has been tested in several native build environments
and in many different cross environments. Of course we cannot support
all possibly existing versions of cross development tools in all
(potentially obsolete) versions. In case of tool chain problems we
recommend to use the ELDK (see https://www.denx.de/wiki/DULG/ELDK)
which is extensively used to build and test U-Boot.

If you are not using a native environment, it is assumed that you
have GNU cross compiling tools available in your path. In this case,
you must set the environment variable CROSS_COMPILE in your shell.
Note that no changes to the Makefile or any other source files are
necessary. For example using the ELDK on a 4xx CPU, please enter:

	$ CROSS_COMPILE=ppc_4xx-

U-Boot is intended to be simple to build. After installing the
sources you must configure U-Boot for one specific board type. This
is done by typing:

	make NAME_defconfig

where "NAME_defconfig" is the name of one of the existing configu-
rations; see configs/*_defconfig for supported names.

Note: for some boards special configuration names may exist; check if
      additional information is available from the board vendor; for
      instance, the TQM823L systems are available without (standard)
      or with LCD support. You can select such additional "features"
      when choosing the configuration, i. e.

      make TQM823L_defconfig
	- will configure for a plain TQM823L, i. e. no LCD support

      make TQM823L_LCD_defconfig
	- will configure for a TQM823L with U-Boot console on LCD


Finally, type "make all", and you should get some working U-Boot
images ready for download to / installation on your system:

- "u-boot.bin" is a raw binary image
- "u-boot" is an image in ELF binary format
- "u-boot.srec" is in Motorola S-Record format

By default the build is performed locally and the objects are saved
in the source directory. One of the two methods can be used to change
this behavior and build U-Boot to some external directory:

1. Add O= to the make command line invocations:

	make O=/tmp/build distclean
	make O=/tmp/build NAME_defconfig
	make O=/tmp/build all

2. Set environment variable KBUILD_OUTPUT to point to the desired location:

	export KBUILD_OUTPUT=/tmp/build
	make distclean
	make NAME_defconfig
	make all

Note that the command line "O=" setting overrides the KBUILD_OUTPUT environment

User specific CPPFLAGS, AFLAGS and CFLAGS can be passed to the compiler by
setting the according environment variables KCPPFLAGS, KAFLAGS and KCFLAGS.
For example to treat all compiler warnings as errors:

	make KCFLAGS=-Werror

Please be aware that the Makefiles assume you are using GNU make, so
for instance on NetBSD you might need to use "gmake" instead of
native "make".

If the system board that you have is not listed, then you will need
to port U-Boot to your hardware platform. To do this, follow these

1.  Create a new directory to hold your board specific code. Add any
    files you need. In your board directory, you will need at least
    the "Makefile" and a "<board>.c".
2.  Create a new configuration file "include/configs/<board>.h" for
    your board.
3.  If you're porting U-Boot to a new CPU, then also create a new
    directory to hold your CPU specific code. Add any files you need.
4.  Run "make <board>_defconfig" with your new name.
5.  Type "make", and you should get a working "u-boot.srec" file
    to be installed on your target system.
6.  Debug and solve any problems that might arise.
    [Of course, this last step is much harder than it sounds.]

Testing of U-Boot Modifications, Ports to New Hardware, etc.:

If you have modified U-Boot sources (for instance added a new board
or support for new devices, a new CPU, etc.) you are expected to
provide feedback to the other developers. The feedback normally takes
the form of a "patch", i.e. a context diff against a certain (latest
official or latest in the git repository) version of U-Boot sources.

But before you submit such a patch, please verify that your modifi-
cation did not break existing code. At least make sure that *ALL* of
the supported boards compile WITHOUT ANY compiler warnings. To do so,
just run the buildman script (tools/buildman/buildman), which will
configure and build U-Boot for ALL supported system. Be warned, this
will take a while. Please see the buildman README, or run 'buildman -H'
for documentation.

See also "U-Boot Porting Guide" below.

Monitor Commands - Overview:

go	- start application at address 'addr'
run	- run commands in an environment variable
bootm	- boot application image from memory
bootp	- boot image via network using BootP/TFTP protocol
bootz   - boot zImage from memory
tftpboot- boot image via network using TFTP protocol
	       and env variables "ipaddr" and "serverip"
	       (and eventually "gatewayip")
tftpput - upload a file via network using TFTP protocol
rarpboot- boot image via network using RARP/TFTP protocol
diskboot- boot from IDE devicebootd   - boot default, i.e., run 'bootcmd'
loads	- load S-Record file over serial line
loadb	- load binary file over serial line (kermit mode)
md	- memory display
mm	- memory modify (auto-incrementing)
nm	- memory modify (constant address)
mw	- memory write (fill)
ms	- memory search
cp	- memory copy
cmp	- memory compare
crc32	- checksum calculation
i2c	- I2C sub-system
sspi	- SPI utility commands
base	- print or set address offset
printenv- print environment variables
pwm	- control pwm channels
setenv	- set environment variables
saveenv - save environment variables to persistent storage
protect - enable or disable FLASH write protection
erase	- erase FLASH memory
flinfo	- print FLASH memory information
nand	- NAND memory operations (see doc/README.nand)
bdinfo	- print Board Info structure
iminfo	- print header information for application image
coninfo - print console devices and informations
ide	- IDE sub-system
loop	- infinite loop on address range
loopw	- infinite write loop on address range
mtest	- simple RAM test
icache	- enable or disable instruction cache
dcache	- enable or disable data cache
reset	- Perform RESET of the CPU
echo	- echo args to console
version - print monitor version
help	- print online help
?	- alias for 'help'

Monitor Commands - Detailed Description:


For now: just type "help <command>".

Environment Variables:

U-Boot supports user configuration using Environment Variables which
can be made persistent by saving to Flash memory.

Environment Variables are set using "setenv", printed using
"printenv", and saved to Flash using "saveenv". Using "setenv"
without a value can be used to delete a variable from the
environment. As long as you don't save the environment you are
working with an in-memory copy. In case the Flash area containing the
environment is erased by accident, a default environment is provided.

Some configuration options can be set using Environment Variables.

List of environment variables (most likely not complete):

  baudrate	- see CONFIG_BAUDRATE

  bootdelay	- see CONFIG_BOOTDELAY

  bootcmd	- see CONFIG_BOOTCOMMAND

  bootargs	- Boot arguments when booting an RTOS image

  bootfile	- Name of the image to load with TFTP

  bootm_low	- Memory range available for image processing in the bootm
		  command can be restricted. This variable is given as
		  a hexadecimal number and defines lowest address allowed
		  for use by the bootm command. See also "bootm_size"
		  environment variable. Address defined by "bootm_low" is
		  also the base of the initial memory mapping for the Linux
		  kernel -- see the description of CONFIG_SYS_BOOTMAPSZ and

  bootm_mapsize - Size of the initial memory mapping for the Linux kernel.
		  This variable is given as a hexadecimal number and it
		  defines the size of the memory region starting at base
		  address bootm_low that is accessible by the Linux kernel
		  during early boot.  If unset, CONFIG_SYS_BOOTMAPSZ is used
		  as the default value if it is defined, and bootm_size is
		  used otherwise.

  bootm_size	- Memory range available for image processing in the bootm
		  command can be restricted. This variable is given as
		  a hexadecimal number and defines the size of the region
		  allowed for use by the bootm command. See also "bootm_low"
		  environment variable.

  bootstopkeysha256, bootdelaykey, bootstopkey	- See README.autoboot

  updatefile	- Location of the software update file on a TFTP server, used
		  by the automatic software update feature. Please refer to
		  documentation in doc/README.update for more details.

  autoload	- if set to "no" (any string beginning with 'n'),
		  "bootp" will just load perform a lookup of the
		  configuration from the BOOTP server, but not try to
		  load any image using TFTP

  autostart	- if set to "yes", an image loaded using the "bootp",
		  "rarpboot", "tftpboot" or "diskboot" commands will
		  be automatically started (by internally calling

		  If set to "no", a standalone image passed to the
		  "bootm" command will be copied to the load address
		  (and eventually uncompressed), but NOT be started.
		  This can be used to load and uncompress arbitrary

  fdt_high	- if set this restricts the maximum address that the
		  flattened device tree will be copied into upon boot.
		  For example, if you have a system with 1 GB memory
		  at physical address 0x10000000, while Linux kernel
		  only recognizes the first 704 MB as low memory, you
		  may need to set fdt_high as 0x3C000000 to have the
		  device tree blob be copied to the maximum address
		  of the 704 MB low memory, so that Linux kernel can
		  access it during the boot procedure.

		  If this is set to the special value 0xFFFFFFFF then
		  the fdt will not be copied at all on boot.  For this
		  to work it must reside in writable memory, have
		  sufficient padding on the end of it for u-boot to
		  add the information it needs into it, and the memory
		  must be accessible by the kernel.

  fdtcontroladdr- if set this is the address of the control flattened
		  device tree used by U-Boot when CONFIG_OF_CONTROL is

  i2cfast	- (PPC405GP|PPC405EP only)
		  if set to 'y' configures Linux I2C driver for fast
		  mode (400kHZ). This environment variable is used in
		  initialization code. So, for changes to be effective
		  it must be saved and board must be reset.

  initrd_high	- restrict positioning of initrd images:
		  If this variable is not set, initrd images will be
		  copied to the highest possible address in RAM; this
		  is usually what you want since it allows for
		  maximum initrd size. If for some reason you want to
		  make sure that the initrd image is loaded below the
		  CONFIG_SYS_BOOTMAPSZ limit, you can set this environment
		  variable to a value of "no" or "off" or "0".
		  Alternatively, you can set it to a maximum upper
		  address to use (U-Boot will still check that it
		  does not overwrite the U-Boot stack and data).

		  For instance, when you have a system with 16 MB
		  RAM, and want to reserve 4 MB from use by Linux,
		  you can do this by adding "mem=12M" to the value of
		  the "bootargs" variable. However, now you must make
		  sure that the initrd image is placed in the first
		  12 MB as well - this can be done with

		  setenv initrd_high 00c00000

		  If you set initrd_high to 0xFFFFFFFF, this is an
		  indication to U-Boot that all addresses are legal
		  for the Linux kernel, including addresses in flash
		  memory. In this case U-Boot will NOT COPY the
		  ramdisk at all. This may be useful to reduce the
		  boot time on your system, but requires that this
		  feature is supported by your Linux kernel.

  ipaddr	- IP address; needed for tftpboot command

  loadaddr	- Default load address for commands like "bootp",
		  "rarpboot", "tftpboot", "loadb" or "diskboot"

  loads_echo	- see CONFIG_LOADS_ECHO

  serverip	- TFTP server IP address; needed for tftpboot command

  bootretry	- see CONFIG_BOOT_RETRY_TIME

  bootdelaykey	- see CONFIG_AUTOBOOT_DELAY_STR

  bootstopkey	- see CONFIG_AUTOBOOT_STOP_STR

  ethprime	- controls which interface is used first.

  ethact	- controls which interface is currently active.
		  For example you can do the following

		  => setenv ethact FEC
		  => ping # traffic sent on FEC
		  => setenv ethact SCC
		  => ping # traffic sent on SCC

  ethrotate	- When set to "no" U-Boot does not go through all
		  available network interfaces.
		  It just stays at the currently selected interface.

  netretry	- When set to "no" each network operation will
		  either succeed or fail without retrying.
		  When set to "once" the network operation will
		  fail when all the available network interfaces
		  are tried once without success.
		  Useful on scripts which control the retry operation

  npe_ucode	- set load address for the NPE microcode

  silent_linux  - If set then Linux will be told to boot silently, by
		  changing the console to be empty. If "yes" it will be
		  made silent. If "no" it will not be made silent. If
		  unset, then it will be made silent if the U-Boot console
		  is silent.

  tftpsrcp	- If this is set, the value is used for TFTP's
		  UDP source port.

  tftpdstp	- If this is set, the value is used for TFTP's UDP
		  destination port instead of the Well Know Port 69.

  tftpblocksize - Block size to use for TFTP transfers; if not set,
		  we use the TFTP server's default block size

  tftptimeout	- Retransmission timeout for TFTP packets (in milli-
		  seconds, minimum value is 1000 = 1 second). Defines
		  when a packet is considered to be lost so it has to
		  be retransmitted. The default is 5000 = 5 seconds.
		  Lowering this value may make downloads succeed
		  faster in networks with high packet loss rates or
		  with unreliable TFTP servers.

  tftptimeoutcountmax	- maximum count of TFTP timeouts (no
		  unit, minimum value = 0). Defines how many timeouts
		  can happen during a single file transfer before that
		  transfer is aborted. The default is 10, and 0 means
		  'no timeouts allowed'. Increasing this value may help
		  downloads succeed with high packet loss rates, or with
		  unreliable TFTP servers or client hardware.

  tftpwindowsize	- if this is set, the value is used for TFTP's
		  window size as described by RFC 7440.
		  This means the count of blocks we can receive before
		  sending ack to server.

  vlan		- When set to a value < 4095 the traffic over
		  Ethernet is encapsulated/received over 802.1q
		  VLAN tagged frames.

  bootpretryperiod	- Period during which BOOTP/DHCP sends retries.
		  Unsigned value, in milliseconds. If not set, the period will
		  be either the default (28000), or a value based on
		  CONFIG_NET_RETRY_COUNT, if defined. This value has
		  precedence over the valu based on CONFIG_NET_RETRY_COUNT.

  memmatches	- Number of matches found by the last 'ms' command, in hex

  memaddr	- Address of the last match found by the 'ms' command, in hex,
		  or 0 if none

  mempos	- Index position of the last match found by the 'ms' command,
		  in units of the size (.b, .w, .l) of the search

  zbootbase	- (x86 only) Base address of the bzImage 'setup' block

  zbootaddr	- (x86 only) Address of the loaded bzImage, typically
		  BZIMAGE_LOAD_ADDR which is 0x100000

The following image location variables contain the location of images
used in booting. The "Image" column gives the role of the image and is
not an environment variable name. The other columns are environment
variable names. "File Name" gives the name of the file on a TFTP
server, "RAM Address" gives the location in RAM the image will be
loaded to, and "Flash Location" gives the image's address in NOR
flash or offset in NAND flash.

*Note* - these variables don't have to be defined for all boards, some
boards currently use other variables for these purposes, and some
boards use these variables for other purposes.

Image		    File Name	     RAM Address       Flash Location
-----		    ---------	     -----------       --------------
u-boot		    u-boot	     u-boot_addr_r     u-boot_addr
Linux kernel	    bootfile	     kernel_addr_r     kernel_addr
device tree blob    fdtfile	     fdt_addr_r	       fdt_addr
ramdisk		    ramdiskfile	     ramdisk_addr_r    ramdisk_addr

The following environment variables may be used and automatically
updated by the network boot commands ("bootp" and "rarpboot"),
depending the information provided by your boot server:

  bootfile	- see above
  dnsip		- IP address of your Domain Name Server
  dnsip2	- IP address of your secondary Domain Name Server
  gatewayip	- IP address of the Gateway (Router) to use
  hostname	- Target hostname
  ipaddr	- see above
  netmask	- Subnet Mask
  rootpath	- Pathname of the root filesystem on the NFS server
  serverip	- see above

There are two special Environment Variables:

  serial#	- contains hardware identification information such
		  as type string and/or serial number
  ethaddr	- Ethernet address

These variables can be set only once (usually during manufacturing of
the board). U-Boot refuses to delete or overwrite these variables
once they have been set once.

Further special Environment Variables:

  ver		- Contains the U-Boot version string as printed
		  with the "version" command. This variable is
		  readonly (see CONFIG_VERSION_VARIABLE).

Please note that changes to some configuration parameters may take
only effect after the next boot (yes, that's just like Windoze :-).

Callback functions for environment variables:

For some environment variables, the behavior of u-boot needs to change
when their values are changed.  This functionality allows functions to
be associated with arbitrary variables.  On creation, overwrite, or
deletion, the callback will provide the opportunity for some side
effect to happen or for the change to be rejected.

The callbacks are named and associated with a function using the
U_BOOT_ENV_CALLBACK macro in your board or driver code.

These callbacks are associated with variables in one of two ways.  The
static list can be added to by defining CONFIG_ENV_CALLBACK_LIST_STATIC
in the board configuration to a string that defines a list of
associations.  The list must be in the following format:

	entry = variable_name[:callback_name]
	list = entry[,list]

If the callback name is not specified, then the callback is deleted.
Spaces are also allowed anywhere in the list.

Callbacks can also be associated by defining the ".callbacks" variable
with the same list format above.  Any association in ".callbacks" will
override any association in the static list. You can define
CONFIG_ENV_CALLBACK_LIST_DEFAULT to a list (string) to define the
".callbacks" environment variable in the default or embedded environment.

If CONFIG_REGEX is defined, the variable_name above is evaluated as a
regular expression. This allows multiple variables to be connected to
the same callback without explicitly listing them all out.

The signature of the callback functions is:

    int callback(const char *name, const char *value, enum env_op op, int flags)

* name - changed environment variable
* value - new value of the environment variable
* op - operation (create, overwrite, or delete)
* flags - attributes of the environment variable change, see flags H_* in

The return value is 0 if the variable change is accepted and 1 otherwise.

Note for Redundant Ethernet Interfaces:

Some boards come with redundant Ethernet interfaces; U-Boot supports
such configurations and is capable of automatic selection of a
"working" interface when needed. MAC assignment works as follows:

Network interfaces are numbered eth0, eth1, eth2, ... Corresponding
MAC addresses can be stored in the environment as "ethaddr" (=>eth0),
"eth1addr" (=>eth1), "eth2addr", ...

If the network interface stores some valid MAC address (for instance
in SROM), this is used as default address if there is NO correspon-
ding setting in the environment; if the corresponding environment
variable is set, this overrides the settings in the card; that means:

o If the SROM has a valid MAC address, and there is no address in the
  environment, the SROM's address is used.

o If there is no valid address in the SROM, and a definition in the
  environment exists, then the value from the environment variable is

o If both the SROM and the environment contain a MAC address, and
  both addresses are the same, this MAC address is used.

o If both the SROM and the environment contain a MAC address, and the
  addresses differ, the value from the environment is used and a
  warning is printed.

o If neither SROM nor the environment contain a MAC address, an error
  is raised. If CONFIG_NET_RANDOM_ETHADDR is defined, then in this case
  a random, locally-assigned MAC is used.

If Ethernet drivers implement the 'write_hwaddr' function, valid MAC addresses
will be programmed into hardware as part of the initialization process.	 This
may be skipped by setting the appropriate 'ethmacskip' environment variable.
The naming convention is as follows:
"ethmacskip" (=>eth0), "eth1macskip" (=>eth1) etc.

Image Formats:

U-Boot is capable of booting (and performing other auxiliary operations on)
images in two formats:

New uImage format (FIT)

Flexible and powerful format based on Flattened Image Tree -- FIT (similar
to Flattened Device Tree). It allows the use of images with multiple
components (several kernels, ramdisks, etc.), with contents protected by
SHA1, MD5 or CRC32. More details are found in the doc/uImage.FIT directory.

Old uImage format

Old image format is based on binary files which can be basically anything,
preceded by a special header; see the definitions in include/image.h for
details; basically, the header defines the following image properties:

* Target Operating System (Provisions for OpenBSD, NetBSD, FreeBSD,
  4.4BSD, Linux, SVR4, Esix, Solaris, Irix, SCO, Dell, NCR, VxWorks,
  Currently supported: Linux, NetBSD, VxWorks, QNX, RTEMS, LynxOS,
* Target CPU Architecture (Provisions for Alpha, ARM, Intel x86,
  IA64, MIPS, NDS32, Nios II, PowerPC, IBM S390, SuperH, Sparc, Sparc 64 Bit;
  Currently supported: ARM, Intel x86, MIPS, NDS32, Nios II, PowerPC).
* Compression Type (uncompressed, gzip, bzip2)
* Load Address
* Entry Point
* Image Name
* Image Timestamp

The header is marked by a special Magic Number, and both the header
and the data portions of the image are secured against corruption by
CRC32 checksums.

Linux Support:

Although U-Boot should support any OS or standalone application
easily, the main focus has always been on Linux during the design of

U-Boot includes many features that so far have been part of some
special "boot loader" code within the Linux kernel. Also, any
"initrd" images to be used are no longer part of one big Linux image;
instead, kernel and "initrd" are separate images. This implementation
serves several purposes:

- the same features can be used for other OS or standalone
  applications (for instance: using compressed images to reduce the
  Flash memory footprint)

- it becomes much easier to port new Linux kernel versions because
  lots of low-level, hardware dependent stuff are done by U-Boot

- the same Linux kernel image can now be used with different "initrd"
  images; of course this also means that different kernel images can
  be run with the same "initrd". This makes testing easier (you don't
  have to build a new "zImage.initrd" Linux image when you just
  change a file in your "initrd"). Also, a field-upgrade of the
  software is easier now.

Linux HOWTO:

Porting Linux to U-Boot based systems:

U-Boot cannot save you from doing all the necessary modifications to
configure the Linux device drivers for use with your target hardware
(no, we don't intend to provide a full virtual machine interface to
Linux :-).

But now you can ignore ALL boot loader code (in arch/powerpc/mbxboot).

Just make sure your machine specific header file (for instance
include/asm-ppc/tqm8xx.h) includes the same definition of the Board
Information structure as we define in include/asm-<arch>/u-boot.h,
and make sure that your definition of IMAP_ADDR uses the same value
as your U-Boot configuration in CONFIG_SYS_IMMR.

Note that U-Boot now has a driver model, a unified model for drivers.
If you are adding a new driver, plumb it into driver model. If there
is no uclass available, you are encouraged to create one. See

Configuring the Linux kernel:

No specific requirements for U-Boot. Make sure you have some root
device (initial ramdisk, NFS) for your target system.

Building a Linux Image:

With U-Boot, "normal" build targets like "zImage" or "bzImage" are
not used. If you use recent kernel source, a new build target
"uImage" will exist which automatically builds an image usable by
U-Boot. Most older kernels also have support for a "pImage" target,
which was introduced for our predecessor project PPCBoot and uses a
100% compatible format.


	make TQM850L_defconfig
	make oldconfig
	make dep
	make uImage

The "uImage" build target uses a special tool (in 'tools/mkimage') to
encapsulate a compressed Linux kernel image with header	 information,
CRC32 checksum etc. for use with U-Boot. This is what we are doing:

* build a standard "vmlinux" kernel image (in ELF binary format):

* convert the kernel into a raw binary image:

	${CROSS_COMPILE}-objcopy -O binary \
				 -R .note -R .comment \
				 -S vmlinux linux.bin

* compress the binary image:

	gzip -9 linux.bin

* package compressed binary image for U-Boot:

	mkimage -A ppc -O linux -T kernel -C gzip \
		-a 0 -e 0 -n "Linux Kernel Image" \
		-d linux.bin.gz uImage

The "mkimage" tool can also be used to create ramdisk images for use
with U-Boot, either separated from the Linux kernel image, or
combined into one file. "mkimage" encapsulates the images with a 64
byte header containing information about target architecture,
operating system, image type, compression method, entry points, time
stamp, CRC32 checksums, etc.

"mkimage" can be called in two ways: to verify existing images and
print the header information, or to build new images.

In the first form (with "-l" option) mkimage lists the information
contained in the header of an existing U-Boot image; this includes
checksum verification:

	tools/mkimage -l image
	  -l ==> list image header information

The second form (with "-d" option) is used to build a U-Boot image
from a "data file" which is used as image payload:

	tools/mkimage -A arch -O os -T type -C comp -a addr -e ep \
		      -n name -d data_file image
	  -A ==> set architecture to 'arch'
	  -O ==> set operating system to 'os'
	  -T ==> set image type to 'type'
	  -C ==> set compression type 'comp'
	  -a ==> set load address to 'addr' (hex)
	  -e ==> set entry point to 'ep' (hex)
	  -n ==> set image name to 'name'
	  -d ==> use image data from 'datafile'

Right now, all Linux kernels for PowerPC systems use the same load
address (0x00000000), but the entry point address depends on the
kernel version:

- 2.2.x kernels have the entry point at 0x0000000C,
- 2.3.x and later kernels have the entry point at 0x00000000.

So a typical call to build a U-Boot image would read:

	-> tools/mkimage -n '2.4.4 kernel for TQM850L' \
	> -A ppc -O linux -T kernel -C gzip -a 0 -e 0 \
	> -d /opt/elsk/ppc_8xx/usr/src/linux-2.4.4/arch/powerpc/coffboot/vmlinux.gz \
	> examples/uImage.TQM850L
	Image Name:   2.4.4 kernel for TQM850L
	Created:      Wed Jul 19 02:34:59 2000
	Image Type:   PowerPC Linux Kernel Image (gzip compressed)
	Data Size:    335725 Bytes = 327.86 kB = 0.32 MB
	Load Address: 0x00000000
	Entry Point:  0x00000000

To verify the contents of the image (or check for corruption):

	-> tools/mkimage -l examples/uImage.TQM850L
	Image Name:   2.4.4 kernel for TQM850L
	Created:      Wed Jul 19 02:34:59 2000
	Image Type:   PowerPC Linux Kernel Image (gzip compressed)
	Data Size:    335725 Bytes = 327.86 kB = 0.32 MB
	Load Address: 0x00000000
	Entry Point:  0x00000000

NOTE: for embedded systems where boot time is critical you can trade
speed for memory and install an UNCOMPRESSED image instead: this
needs more space in Flash, but boots much faster since it does not
need to be uncompressed:

	-> gunzip /opt/elsk/ppc_8xx/usr/src/linux-2.4.4/arch/powerpc/coffboot/vmlinux.gz
	-> tools/mkimage -n '2.4.4 kernel for TQM850L' \
	> -A ppc -O linux -T kernel -C none -a 0 -e 0 \
	> -d /opt/elsk/ppc_8xx/usr/src/linux-2.4.4/arch/powerpc/coffboot/vmlinux \
	> examples/uImage.TQM850L-uncompressed
	Image Name:   2.4.4 kernel for TQM850L
	Created:      Wed Jul 19 02:34:59 2000
	Image Type:   PowerPC Linux Kernel Image (uncompressed)
	Data Size:    792160 Bytes = 773.59 kB = 0.76 MB
	Load Address: 0x00000000
	Entry Point:  0x00000000

Similar you can build U-Boot images from a 'ramdisk.image.gz' file
when your kernel is intended to use an initial ramdisk:

	-> tools/mkimage -n 'Simple Ramdisk Image' \
	> -A ppc -O linux -T ramdisk -C gzip \
	> -d /LinuxPPC/images/SIMPLE-ramdisk.image.gz examples/simple-initrd
	Image Name:   Simple Ramdisk Image
	Created:      Wed Jan 12 14:01:50 2000
	Image Type:   PowerPC Linux RAMDisk Image (gzip compressed)
	Data Size:    566530 Bytes = 553.25 kB = 0.54 MB
	Load Address: 0x00000000
	Entry Point:  0x00000000

The "dumpimage" tool can be used to disassemble or list the contents of images
built by mkimage. See dumpimage's help output (-h) for details.

Installing a Linux Image:

To downloading a U-Boot image over the serial (console) interface,
you must convert the image to S-Record format:

	objcopy -I binary -O srec examples/image examples/image.srec

The 'objcopy' does not understand the information in the U-Boot
image header, so the resulting S-Record file will be relative to
address 0x00000000. To load it to a given address, you need to
specify the target address as 'offset' parameter with the 'loads'

Example: install the image to address 0x40100000 (which on the
TQM8xxL is in the first Flash bank):

	=> erase 40100000 401FFFFF

	.......... done
	Erased 8 sectors

	=> loads 40100000
	## Ready for S-Record download ...
	1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 ...
	15989 15990 15991 15992
	[file transfer complete]
	## Start Addr = 0x00000000

You can check the success of the download using the 'iminfo' command;
this includes a checksum verification so you can be sure no data
corruption happened:

	=> imi 40100000

	## Checking Image at 40100000 ...
	   Image Name:	 2.2.13 for initrd on TQM850L
	   Image Type:	 PowerPC Linux Kernel Image (gzip compressed)
	   Data Size:	 335725 Bytes = 327 kB = 0 MB
	   Load Address: 00000000
	   Entry Point:	 0000000c
	   Verifying Checksum ... OK

Boot Linux:

The "bootm" command is used to boot an application that is stored in
memory (RAM or Flash). In case of a Linux kernel image, the contents
of the "bootargs" environment variable is passed to the kernel as
parameters. You can check and modify this variable using the
"printenv" and "setenv" commands:

	=> printenv bootargs

	=> setenv bootargs root=/dev/nfs rw nfsroot= nfsaddrs=

	=> printenv bootargs
	bootargs=root=/dev/nfs rw nfsroot= nfsaddrs=

	=> bootm 40020000
	## Booting Linux kernel at 40020000 ...
	   Image Name:	 2.2.13 for NFS on TQM850L
	   Image Type:	 PowerPC Linux Kernel Image (gzip compressed)
	   Data Size:	 381681 Bytes = 372 kB = 0 MB
	   Load Address: 00000000
	   Entry Point:	 0000000c
	   Verifying Checksum ... OK
	   Uncompressing Kernel Image ... OK
	Linux version 2.2.13 (wd@denx.local.net) (gcc version 2.95.2 19991024 (release)) #1 Wed Jul 19 02:35:17 MEST 2000
	Boot arguments: root=/dev/nfs rw nfsroot= nfsaddrs=
	time_init: decrementer frequency = 187500000/60
	Calibrating delay loop... 49.77 BogoMIPS
	Memory: 15208k available (700k kernel code, 444k data, 32k init) [c0000000,c1000000]

If you want to boot a Linux kernel with initial RAM disk, you pass
the memory addresses of both the kernel and the initrd image (PPBCOOT
format!) to the "bootm" command:

	=> imi 40100000 40200000

	## Checking Image at 40100000 ...
	   Image Name:	 2.2.13 for initrd on TQM850L
	   Image Type:	 PowerPC Linux Kernel Image (gzip compressed)
	   Data Size:	 335725 Bytes = 327 kB = 0 MB
	   Load Address: 00000000
	   Entry Point:	 0000000c
	   Verifying Checksum ... OK

	## Checking Image at 40200000 ...
	   Image Name:	 Simple Ramdisk Image
	   Image Type:	 PowerPC Linux RAMDisk Image (gzip compressed)
	   Data Size:	 566530 Bytes = 553 kB = 0 MB
	   Load Address: 00000000
	   Entry Point:	 00000000
	   Verifying Checksum ... OK

	=> bootm 40100000 40200000
	## Booting Linux kernel at 40100000 ...
	   Image Name:	 2.2.13 for initrd on TQM850L
	   Image Type:	 PowerPC Linux Kernel Image (gzip compressed)
	   Data Size:	 335725 Bytes = 327 kB = 0 MB
	   Load Address: 00000000
	   Entry Point:	 0000000c
	   Verifying Checksum ... OK
	   Uncompressing Kernel Image ... OK
	## Loading RAMDisk Image at 40200000 ...
	   Image Name:	 Simple Ramdisk Image
	   Image Type:	 PowerPC Linux RAMDisk Image (gzip compressed)
	   Data Size:	 566530 Bytes = 553 kB = 0 MB
	   Load Address: 00000000
	   Entry Point:	 00000000
	   Verifying Checksum ... OK
	   Loading Ramdisk ... OK
	Linux version 2.2.13 (wd@denx.local.net) (gcc version 2.95.2 19991024 (release)) #1 Wed Jul 19 02:32:08 MEST 2000
	Boot arguments: root=/dev/ram
	time_init: decrementer frequency = 187500000/60
	Calibrating delay loop... 49.77 BogoMIPS
	RAMDISK: Compressed image found at block 0
	VFS: Mounted root (ext2 filesystem).


Boot Linux and pass a flat device tree:

First, U-Boot must be compiled with the appropriate defines. See the section
titled "Linux Kernel Interface" above for a more in depth explanation. The
following is an example of how to start a kernel and pass an updated
flat device tree:

=> print oftaddr
=> print oft
=> tftp $oftaddr $oft
Speed: 1000, full duplex
Using TSEC0 device
TFTP from server; our IP address is
Filename 'oftrees/mpc8540ads.dtb'.
Load address: 0x300000
Loading: #
Bytes transferred = 4106 (100a hex)
=> tftp $loadaddr $bootfile
Speed: 1000, full duplex
Using TSEC0 device
TFTP from server; our IP address is
Filename 'uImage'.
Load address: 0x200000
Bytes transferred = 1029407 (fb51f hex)
=> print loadaddr
=> print oftaddr
=> bootm $loadaddr - $oftaddr
## Booting image at 00200000 ...
   Image Name:	 Linux-2.6.17-dirty
   Image Type:	 PowerPC Linux Kernel Image (gzip compressed)
   Data Size:	 1029343 Bytes = 1005.2 kB
   Load Address: 00000000
   Entry Point:	 00000000
   Verifying Checksum ... OK
   Uncompressing Kernel Image ... OK
Booting using flat device tree at 0x300000
Using MPC85xx ADS machine description
Memory CAM mapping: CAM0=256Mb, CAM1=256Mb, CAM2=0Mb residual: 0Mb

More About U-Boot Image Types:

U-Boot supports the following image types:

   "Standalone Programs" are directly runnable in the environment
	provided by U-Boot; it is expected that (if they behave
	well) you can continue to work in U-Boot after return from
	the Standalone Program.
   "OS Kernel Images" are usually images of some Embedded OS which
	will take over control completely. Usually these programs
	will install their own set of exception handlers, device
	drivers, set up the MMU, etc. - this means, that you cannot
	expect to re-enter U-Boot except by resetting the CPU.
   "RAMDisk Images" are more or less just data blocks, and their
	parameters (address, size) are passed to an OS kernel that is
	being started.
   "Multi-File Images" contain several images, typically an OS
	(Linux) kernel image and one or more data images like
	RAMDisks. This construct is useful for instance when you want
	to boot over the network using BOOTP etc., where the boot
	server provides just a single image file, but you want to get
	for instance an OS kernel and a RAMDisk image.

	"Multi-File Images" start with a list of image sizes, each
	image size (in bytes) specified by an "uint32_t" in network
	byte order. This list is terminated by an "(uint32_t)0".
	Immediately after the terminating 0 follow the images, one by
	one, all aligned on "uint32_t" boundaries (size rounded up to
	a multiple of 4 bytes).

   "Firmware Images" are binary images containing firmware (like
	U-Boot or FPGA images) which usually will be programmed to
	flash memory.

   "Script files" are command sequences that will be executed by
	U-Boot's command interpreter; this feature is especially
	useful when you configure U-Boot to use a real shell (hush)
	as command interpreter.

Booting the Linux zImage:

On some platforms, it's possible to boot Linux zImage. This is done
using the "bootz" command. The syntax of "bootz" command is the same
as the syntax of "bootm" command.

Note, defining the CONFIG_SUPPORT_RAW_INITRD allows user to supply
kernel with raw initrd images. The syntax is slightly different, the
address of the initrd must be augmented by it's size, in the following
format: "<initrd addres>:<initrd size>".

Standalone HOWTO:

One of the features of U-Boot is that you can dynamically load and
run "standalone" applications, which can use some resources of
U-Boot like console I/O functions or interrupt services.

Two simple examples are included with the sources:

"Hello World" Demo:

'examples/hello_world.c' contains a small "Hello World" Demo
application; it is automatically compiled when you build U-Boot.
It's configured to run at address 0x00040004, so you can play with it
like that:

	=> loads
	## Ready for S-Record download ...
	1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ...
	[file transfer complete]
	## Start Addr = 0x00040004

	=> go 40004 Hello World! This is a test.
	## Starting application at 0x00040004 ...
	Hello World
	argc = 7
	argv[0] = "40004"
	argv[1] = "Hello"
	argv[2] = "World!"
	argv[3] = "This"
	argv[4] = "is"
	argv[5] = "a"
	argv[6] = "test."
	argv[7] = "<NULL>"
	Hit any key to exit ...

	## Application terminated, rc = 0x0

Another example, which demonstrates how to register a CPM interrupt
handler with the U-Boot code, can be found in 'examples/timer.c'.
Here, a CPM timer is set up to generate an interrupt every second.
The interrupt service routine is trivial, just printing a '.'
character, but this is just a demo program. The application can be
controlled by the following keys:

	? - print current values og the CPM Timer registers
	b - enable interrupts and start timer
	e - stop timer and disable interrupts
	q - quit application

	=> loads
	## Ready for S-Record download ...
	1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ...
	[file transfer complete]
	## Start Addr = 0x00040004

	=> go 40004
	## Starting application at 0x00040004 ...
	Using timer 1
	  tgcr @ 0xfff00980, tmr @ 0xfff00990, trr @ 0xfff00994, tcr @ 0xfff00998, tcn @ 0xfff0099c, ter @ 0xfff009b0

Hit 'b':
	[q, b, e, ?] Set interval 1000000 us
	Enabling timer
Hit '?':
	[q, b, e, ?] ........
	tgcr=0x1, tmr=0xff1c, trr=0x3d09, tcr=0x0, tcn=0xef6, ter=0x0
Hit '?':
	[q, b, e, ?] .
	tgcr=0x1, tmr=0xff1c, trr=0x3d09, tcr=0x0, tcn=0x2ad4, ter=0x0
Hit '?':
	[q, b, e, ?] .
	tgcr=0x1, tmr=0xff1c, trr=0x3d09, tcr=0x0, tcn=0x1efc, ter=0x0
Hit '?':
	[q, b, e, ?] .
	tgcr=0x1, tmr=0xff1c, trr=0x3d09, tcr=0x0, tcn=0x169d, ter=0x0
Hit 'e':
	[q, b, e, ?] ...Stopping timer
Hit 'q':
	[q, b, e, ?] ## Application terminated, rc = 0x0

Minicom warning:

Over time, many people have reported problems when trying to use the
"minicom" terminal emulation program for serial download. I (wd)
consider minicom to be broken, and recommend not to use it. Under
Unix, I recommend to use C-Kermit for general purpose use (and
especially for kermit binary protocol download ("loadb" command), and
use "cu" for S-Record download ("loads" command).  See
for help with kermit.

Nevertheless, if you absolutely want to use it try adding this
configuration to your "File transfer protocols" section:

	   Name	   Program			Name U/D FullScr IO-Red. Multi
	X  kermit  /usr/bin/kermit -i -l %l -s	 Y    U	   Y	   N	  N
	Y  kermit  /usr/bin/kermit -i -l %l -r	 N    D	   Y	   N	  N

NetBSD Notes:

Starting at version 0.9.2, U-Boot supports NetBSD both as host
(build U-Boot) and target system (boots NetBSD/mpc8xx).

Building requires a cross environment; it is known to work on
NetBSD/i386 with the cross-powerpc-netbsd-1.3 package (you will also
need gmake since the Makefiles are not compatible with BSD make).
Note that the cross-powerpc package does not install include files;
attempting to build U-Boot will fail because <machine/ansi.h> is
missing.  This file has to be installed and patched manually:

	# cd /usr/pkg/cross/powerpc-netbsd/include
	# mkdir powerpc
	# ln -s powerpc machine
	# cp /usr/src/sys/arch/powerpc/include/ansi.h powerpc/ansi.h
	# ${EDIT} powerpc/ansi.h	## must remove __va_list, _BSD_VA_LIST

Native builds *don't* work due to incompatibilities between native
and U-Boot include files.

Booting assumes that (the first part of) the image booted is a
stage-2 loader which in turn loads and then invokes the kernel
proper. Loader sources will eventually appear in the NetBSD source
tree (probably in sys/arc/mpc8xx/stand/u-boot_stage2/); in the
meantime, see ftp://ftp.denx.de/pub/u-boot/ppcboot_stage2.tar.gz

Implementation Internals:

The following is not intended to be a complete description of every
implementation detail. However, it should help to understand the
inner workings of U-Boot and make it easier to port it to custom

Initial Stack, Global Data:

The implementation of U-Boot is complicated by the fact that U-Boot
starts running out of ROM (flash memory), usually without access to
system RAM (because the memory controller is not initialized yet).
This means that we don't have writable Data or BSS segments, and BSS
is not initialized as zero. To be able to get a C environment working
at all, we have to allocate at least a minimal stack. Implementation
options for this are defined and restricted by the CPU used: Some CPU
models provide on-chip memory (like the IMMR area on MPC8xx and
MPC826x processors), on others (parts of) the data cache can be
locked as (mis-) used as memory, etc.

	Chris Hallinan posted a good summary of these issues to the
	U-Boot mailing list:

	Subject: RE: [U-Boot-Users] RE: More On Memory Bank x (nothingness)?
	From: "Chris Hallinan" <clh@net1plus.com>
	Date: Mon, 10 Feb 2003 16:43:46 -0500 (22:43 MET)

	Correct me if I'm wrong, folks, but the way I understand it
	is this: Using DCACHE as initial RAM for Stack, etc, does not
	require any physical RAM backing up the cache. The cleverness
	is that the cache is being used as a temporary supply of
	necessary storage before the SDRAM controller is setup. It's
	beyond the scope of this list to explain the details, but you
	can see how this works by studying the cache architecture and
	operation in the architecture and processor-specific manuals.

	OCM is On Chip Memory, which I believe the 405GP has 4K. It
	is another option for the system designer to use as an
	initial stack/RAM area prior to SDRAM being available. Either
	option should work for you. Using CS 4 should be fine if your
	board designers haven't used it for something that would
	cause you grief during the initial boot! It is frequently not

	CONFIG_SYS_INIT_RAM_ADDR should be somewhere that won't interfere
	with your processor/board/system design. The default value
	you will find in any recent u-boot distribution in
	walnut.h should work for you. I'd set it to a value larger
	than your SDRAM module. If you have a 64MB SDRAM module, set
	it above 400_0000. Just make sure your board has no resources
	that are supposed to respond to that address! That code in
	start.S has been around a while and should work as is when
	you get the config right.

	-Chris Hallinan
	DS4.COM, Inc.

It is essential to remember this, since it has some impact on the C
code for the initialization procedures:

* Initialized global data (data segment) is read-only. Do not attempt
  to write it.

* Do not use any uninitialized global data (or implicitly initialized
  as zero data - BSS segment) at all - this is undefined, initiali-
  zation is performed later (when relocating to RAM).

* Stack space is very limited. Avoid big data buffers or things like

Having only the stack as writable memory limits means we cannot use
normal global data to share information between the code. But it
turned out that the implementation of U-Boot can be greatly
simplified by making a global data structure (gd_t) available to all
functions. We could pass a pointer to this data as argument to _all_
functions, but this would bloat the code. Instead we use a feature of
the GCC compiler (Global Register Variables) to share the data: we
place a pointer (gd) to the global data into a register which we
reserve for this purpose.

When choosing a register for such a purpose we are restricted by the
relevant  (E)ABI  specifications for the current architecture, and by
GCC's implementation.

For PowerPC, the following registers have specific use:
	R1:	stack pointer
	R2:	reserved for system use
	R3-R4:	parameter passing and return values
	R5-R10: parameter passing
	R13:	small data area pointer
	R30:	GOT pointer
	R31:	frame pointer

	(U-Boot also uses R12 as internal GOT pointer. r12
	is a volatile register so r12 needs to be reset when
	going back and forth between asm and C)

    ==> U-Boot will use R2 to hold a pointer to the global data

    Note: on PPC, we could use a static initializer (since the
    address of the global data structure is known at compile time),
    but it turned out that reserving a register results in somewhat
    smaller code - although the code savings are not that big (on
    average for all boards 752 bytes for the whole U-Boot image,
    624 text + 127 data).

On ARM, the following registers are used:

	R0:	function argument word/integer result
	R1-R3:	function argument word
	R9:	platform specific
	R10:	stack limit (used only if stack checking is enabled)
	R11:	argument (frame) pointer
	R12:	temporary workspace
	R13:	stack pointer
	R14:	link register
	R15:	program counter

    ==> U-Boot will use R9 to hold a pointer to the global data

    Note: on ARM, only R_ARM_RELATIVE relocations are supported.

On Nios II, the ABI is documented here:

    ==> U-Boot will use gp to hold a pointer to the global data

    Note: on Nios II, we give "-G0" option to gcc and don't use gp
    to access small data sections, so gp is free.

On NDS32, the following registers are used:

	R0-R1:	argument/return
	R2-R5:	argument
	R15:	temporary register for assembler
	R16:	trampoline register
	R28:	frame pointer (FP)
	R29:	global pointer (GP)
	R30:	link register (LP)
	R31:	stack pointer (SP)
	PC:	program counter (PC)

    ==> U-Boot will use R10 to hold a pointer to the global data

NOTE: DECLARE_GLOBAL_DATA_PTR must be used with file-global scope,
or current versions of GCC may "optimize" the code too much.

On RISC-V, the following registers are used:

	x0: hard-wired zero (zero)
	x1: return address (ra)
	x2:	stack pointer (sp)
	x3:	global pointer (gp)
	x4:	thread pointer (tp)
	x5:	link register (t0)
	x8:	frame pointer (fp)
	x10-x11:	arguments/return values (a0-1)
	x12-x17:	arguments (a2-7)
	x28-31:	 temporaries (t3-6)
	pc:	program counter (pc)

    ==> U-Boot will use gp to hold a pointer to the global data

Memory Management:

U-Boot runs in system state and uses physical addresses, i.e. the
MMU is not used either for address mapping nor for memory protection.

The available memory is mapped to fixed addresses using the memory
controller. In this process, a contiguous block is formed for each
memory type (Flash, SDRAM, SRAM), even when it consists of several
physical memory banks.

U-Boot is installed in the first 128 kB of the first Flash bank (on
TQM8xxL modules this is the range 0x40000000 ... 0x4001FFFF). After
booting and sizing and initializing DRAM, the code relocates itself
to the upper end of DRAM. Immediately below the U-Boot code some
memory is reserved for use by malloc() [see CONFIG_SYS_MALLOC_LEN
configuration setting]. Below that, a structure with global Board
Info data is placed, followed by the stack (growing downward).

Additionally, some exception handler code is copied to the low 8 kB
of DRAM (0x00000000 ... 0x00001FFF).

So a typical memory configuration with 16 MB of DRAM could look like

	0x0000 0000	Exception Vector code
	0x0000 1FFF
	0x0000 2000	Free for Application Use

	0x00FB FF20	Monitor Stack (Growing downward)
	0x00FB FFAC	Board Info Data and permanent copy of global data
	0x00FC 0000	Malloc Arena
	0x00FD FFFF
	0x00FE 0000	RAM Copy of Monitor Code
	...		eventually: LCD or video framebuffer
	...		eventually: pRAM (Protected RAM - unchanged by reset)
	0x00FF FFFF	[End of RAM]

System Initialization:

In the reset configuration, U-Boot starts at the reset entry point
(on most PowerPC systems at address 0x00000100). Because of the reset
configuration for CS0# this is a mirror of the on board Flash memory.
To be able to re-map memory U-Boot then jumps to its link address.
To be able to implement the initialization code in C, a (small!)
initial stack is set up in the internal Dual Ported RAM (in case CPUs
which provide such a feature like), or in a locked part of the data
cache. After that, U-Boot initializes the CPU core, the caches and
the SIU.

Next, all (potentially) available memory banks are mapped using a
preliminary mapping. For example, we put them on 512 MB boundaries
(multiples of 0x20000000: SDRAM on 0x00000000 and 0x20000000, Flash
on 0x40000000 and 0x60000000, SRAM on 0x80000000). Then UPM A is
programmed for SDRAM access. Using the temporary configuration, a
simple memory test is run that determines the size of the SDRAM

When there is more than one SDRAM bank, and the banks are of
different size, the largest is mapped first. For equal size, the first
bank (CS2#) is mapped first. The first mapping is always for address
0x00000000, with any additional banks following immediately to create
contiguous memory starting from 0.

Then, the monitor installs itself at the upper end of the SDRAM area
and allocates memory for use by malloc() and for the global Board
Info data; also, the exception vector code is copied to the low RAM
pages, and the final stack is set up.

Only after this relocation will you have a "normal" C environment;
until that you are restricted in several ways, mostly because you are
running from ROM, and because the code will have to be relocated to a
new address in RAM.

U-Boot Porting Guide:

[Based on messages by Jerry Van Baren in the U-Boot-Users mailing
list, October 2002]

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
	sighandler_t no_more_time;

	signal(SIGALRM, no_more_time);
	alarm(PROJECT_DEADLINE - toSec (3 * WEEK));

	if (available_money > available_manpower) {
		Pay consultant to port U-Boot;
		return 0;

	Download latest U-Boot source;

	Subscribe to u-boot mailing list;

	if (clueless)
		email("Hi, I am new to U-Boot, how do I get started?");

	while (learning) {
		Read the README file in the top level directory;
		Read https://www.denx.de/wiki/bin/view/DULG/Manual;
		Read applicable doc/README.*;
		Read the source, Luke;
		/* find . -name "*.[chS]" | xargs grep -i <keyword> */

	if (available_money > toLocalCurrency ($2500))
		Buy a BDI3000;
		Add a lot of aggravation and time;

	if (a similar board exists) {	/* hopefully... */
		cp -a board/<similar> board/<myboard>
		cp include/configs/<similar>.h include/configs/<myboard>.h
	} else {
		Create your own board support subdirectory;
		Create your own board include/configs/<myboard>.h file;
	Edit new board/<myboard> files
	Edit new include/configs/<myboard>.h

	while (!accepted) {
		while (!running) {
			do {
				Add / modify source code;
			} until (compiles);
			if (clueless)
				email("Hi, I am having problems...");
		Send patch file to the U-Boot email list;
		if (reasonable critiques)
			Incorporate improvements from email list code review;
			Defend code as written;

	return 0;

void no_more_time (int sig)

Coding Standards:

All contributions to U-Boot should conform to the Linux kernel
coding style; see the kernel coding style guide at
https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/process/coding-style.html, and the
script "scripts/Lindent" in your Linux kernel source directory.

Source files originating from a different project (for example the
MTD subsystem) are generally exempt from these guidelines and are not
reformatted to ease subsequent migration to newer versions of those

Please note that U-Boot is implemented in C (and to some small parts in
Assembler); no C++ is used, so please do not use C++ style comments (//)
in your code.

Please also stick to the following formatting rules:
- remove any trailing white space
- use TAB characters for indentation and vertical alignment, not spaces
- make sure NOT to use DOS '\r\n' line feeds
- do not add more than 2 consecutive empty lines to source files
- do not add trailing empty lines to source files

Submissions which do not conform to the standards may be returned
with a request to reformat the changes.

Submitting Patches:

Since the number of patches for U-Boot is growing, we need to
establish some rules. Submissions which do not conform to these rules
may be rejected, even when they contain important and valuable stuff.

Please see https://www.denx.de/wiki/U-Boot/Patches for details.

Patches shall be sent to the u-boot mailing list <u-boot@lists.denx.de>;
see https://lists.denx.de/listinfo/u-boot

When you send a patch, please include the following information with

* For bug fixes: a description of the bug and how your patch fixes
  this bug. Please try to include a way of demonstrating that the
  patch actually fixes something.

* For new features: a description of the feature and your

* For major contributions, add a MAINTAINERS file with your
  information and associated file and directory references.

* When you add support for a new board, don't forget to add a
  maintainer e-mail address to the boards.cfg file, too.

* If your patch adds new configuration options, don't forget to
  document these in the README file.

* The patch itself. If you are using git (which is *strongly*
  recommended) you can easily generate the patch using the
  "git format-patch". If you then use "git send-email" to send it to
  the U-Boot mailing list, you will avoid most of the common problems
  with some other mail clients.

  If you cannot use git, use "diff -purN OLD NEW". If your version of
  diff does not support these options, then get the latest version of
  GNU diff.

  The current directory when running this command shall be the parent
  directory of the U-Boot source tree (i. e. please make sure that
  your patch includes sufficient directory information for the
  affected files).

  We prefer patches as plain text. MIME attachments are discouraged,
  and compressed attachments must not be used.

* If one logical set of modifications affects or creates several
  files, all these changes shall be submitted in a SINGLE patch file.

* Changesets that contain different, unrelated modifications shall be
  submitted as SEPARATE patches, one patch per changeset.


* Before sending the patch, run the buildman script on your patched
  source tree and make sure that no errors or warnings are reported
  for any of the boards.

* Keep your modifications to the necessary minimum: A patch
  containing several unrelated changes or arbitrary reformats will be
  returned with a request to re-formatting / split it.

* If you modify existing code, make sure that your new code does not
  add to the memory footprint of the code ;-) Small is beautiful!
  When adding new features, these should compile conditionally only
  (using #ifdef), and the resulting code with the new feature
  disabled must not need more memory than the old code without your

* Remember that there is a size limit of 100 kB per message on the
  u-boot mailing list. Bigger patches will be moderated. If they are
  reasonable and not too big, they will be acknowledged. But patches
  bigger than the size limit should be avoided.